Flinders, Baudin, and the discovery of the 'unknown coast'.

1600 | 1700 | 1800 | 1801 | 1802 | 1803 | 1804

YEAR

DATE

FLINDERS

BAUDIN

1627

Gulden Zeepaard explores southern coast of New Holland, from west to present day Nuyts Archipelago near Ceduna.

   

1754

17 February

 

Baudin born at St Martin, Ile de Ré.

1768-1770

James Cook explores Pacific; discovers and charts east coast of New Holland and names it New South Wales.

   

1774

   

Joins the French navy.

1774

16 March

Flinders born at Donington, Lincolnshire, England.

 

1788

January

First Fleet from England arrives at Botany Bay.

   

1789

23 October

Enters the Royal Navy.

 

1791-1793

 

Voyage to the Pacific in HMS Providence. under command of Captain Bligh.

1792 Commands scientific expedition to Indian Ocean.

1795-1796

 

Voyage to New South Wales in HMS Reliance with Governor Hunter.

 

1796-1798

 

1797 Voyage on HMS Reliance to Cape of Good Hope to obtain livestock for the new settlement of Port Jackson [Sydney]. Flinders’ cat Trim born during voyage.

1796 Baudin leads natural history expedition to West Indies; proposal for scientific expedition around the world accepted but postponed.

1798-1799

October 1798 - January 1799

Circumnavigates Van Diemen’s Land [Tasmania] with Bass in HM Sloop Norfolk.

July 1788: The proposed expedition plans are revived.

1799

July-August

Explores the Queensland coast in HM Sloop Norfolk.

 

1800

March-August

Returns to England in the HMS Reliance.

24 April: Baudin receives instructions for French cartographic survey and scientific exploration of New Holland.

1800

September

Flinders proposes survey of ‘unknown coast’ of New Holland. Proposal commended by Banks and Spencer, and approved by King George III.

 

1800

19 October

 

Sails from Le Havre with two ships, Le Géographe and Le Naturaliste.

1801

February

Flinders given command of HMS Investigator; prepares for voyage.

 

1801

March-April

17 April: Flinders marries Ann Chappelle.

More than 50 crew and scientists left sick or abandon ship on Ile de France [Mauritius].

1801

27 May

 

Baudin sights Cape Leeuwin [SW Australia]; heads north in Le Geographe to survey west coast. Separated from Le Naturaliste which conducts more detailed survey of west coast.

1801

18 July

Sails from Portsmouth in HMS Investigator to explore ‘unknown southern coast’ of New Holland.

 

1801

August-November

16 October: arrives at Cape of Good Hope.

West Timor; crew deaths from dysentery and fever.

1801

13 November

 

Sails south from Timor towards Van Diemen’s Land [Tasmania].

1801

6 December

Sights Cape Leeuwin [SW Australia]. At King George Sound from 11 December5 January 1802.

 

1801

4 January

Leaves King George Sound, heading east towards ‘unknown coast.’

South of Cape Leeuwin; not sighted due to poor visibility.

1801

5 January

Explores southern coast, heading east.

 

1802

4 January

Leaves King George Sound, heading east towards ‘unknown coast.’

South of Cape Leeuwin; not sighted due to poor visibility.

1802

5 January

Explores southern coast, heading east.

 

1802

13 January-24 March

 

Surveys Van Diemen's Land.

1802

27 January

Flinders in South Australian waters. Near head of the Great Australian Bight.

 

1802

28, 29 January

Fowlers Bay [landing on 29 January]

 

1802

3, 4 February

St. Francis Islands

 

1802

5 February

Streaky Bay

 

1802

6 February

Smoky Bay

 

1802

7 February

St. Peter Island

 

1802

8, 9 February

St. Francis Islands

 

1802

11-14 February

Investigator’s Group Of Islands [landing on Flinders Island]

20 February: Baudin’s friend zoologist Rene Mauge dies; following day is buried on Maria Island.

1802

16 February

Coffin Bay

 

1802

20 February

Spencer Gulf

 

1802

21 February

Thistle Island

 
 

21 February

2 officers and 6 crew drown in Thorny Passage when ship’s cutter capsizes.[Cape Catastrophe].

 

1802

22-24 February

22 February: Cutter found in Memory Cove; men not found.

 

1802

26 February - 5 March

Port Lincoln [coast and land explored]

 

1802

6, 7 March

Sir Joseph Banks Group Of Islands

 

1802

9-11 March

Head Of Spencer Gulf.

9 March: Hummock Hill [Whyalla] and Point Lowly.

10 March: Robert Brown and scientific party climb Mount Brown.

Heading north up East coast of Tasmania. Geographer Boullanger in dinghy with 1 officer and 6 seamen are separated from Le Geographe. Subsequently rescued and returned to Le Naturaliste.

1802

15 March

Point Riley

 

1802

18 March

Point Pearce

 

1802

19 March

Corny Point

 

1802

20 March

Survey of Spencer Gulf completed.

 

1802

21-24 March

Kangaroo Island: north coast

Kent Islands, Murray Passage, Judgement Rocks, The Sisters

1802

25-27 March

Investigator Strait

 

1802

27 March-1 April

Gulf of St. Vincent

28 March 1802 sights Wilson ‘s Promontory

1802

2- April

 

Baudin in South Australian waters.

1802

2-6 April

Kangaroo Island. Flinders and Brown explore Nepean Bay, climb Prospect Hill [Mount Thisby]

 

1802

5 April

 

Cape Northumberland

1802

6 April

 

Rivoli Bay; Cape Rabelais, Nora Creina Bay.

1802

7 April

 

Baudin Rocks, Lacepede Bay.

1802

8, 9 April

Encounter Bay - unexpected meeting with Baudin. Flinders boards Le Geographe; exchanges information. Flinders continues voyage south-eastwards.

Encounter Bay -
unexpected meeting with Flinders; exchanges information. Baudin continues voyage westwards.

1802

9 April

 

Fleurieu Peninsula; The Pages.

1802

10, 11 April

10 April Investigator passes Coorong.

Kangaroo Island: [Named Ile Borda by Baudin; Ile Decres by Freycinet]

1802

12-14 April

South-east coast of South Australia.

Gulf St. Vincent [named Golfe de Ia Mauvaise by Baudin; named Golfe Josephine by Peron]; Yorke Peninsula.

1802

13 April

Baudin’s Rocks [Godfrey Islands]

 

1802

15 April

Cape Buffon

 

1802

18-24 April

18 April: Mount Gambier and Mount Schank sighted.

Le Geographe in Spencer Gulf [named Golfe de la Melomanie by Baudin; named Golfe Bonaparte by Peron]. No landings. Many of crew suffering from scurvy.

1802

19 April

Leaves South Australian waters; reaches Victorian coast.

Spencer Gulf. Port Champagny [Port Lincoln]

1802

25 April

 

Le Naturaliste arrives in Port Jackson [Sydney]

1802

26-30 April

 

Le Geographe surveys Eyre Peninsula: west coast. Sleaford Bay.

1802

26 April-3 May

Port Phillip Bay.

 

1802

1-5 May

 

St. Francis and St. Peter Islands.

1802

8 May

 

Cape Adieu. Discontinues survey; sails for Port Jackson [Sydney] Leaves South Australian waters.

1802

9 May

Investigator arrives in Port Jackson [Sydney]. Stays for 10 weeks while ship refitted and reprovisioned.

 

1802

20 June- mid-November

 

Le Geographe arrives in Port Jackson. Ships repaired; crews convalesce. Le Naturaliste returns to France with scientific collections; replaced by Le Casuarina with Louis de Freycinet as Commander.

1802

22 July-31 December

Leaves Port Jackson to complete circumnavigation of continent. Sails for northern Australia; surveys east coast and adds to Cook’s charts.

 

1802-1803

3 November 1802 - 17 February 1803

Gulf of Carpentaria.

 

1803

2-6 January

 

Baudin in Le Geographe and Freycinet in Le Casuarina circumnavigate Kangaroo Island.

1803

6 January-1 February

 

Baudin at Nepean Bay.

1803

10- 31 January

 

Freycinet with geographer Boullanger in Le Casuarina explore the two gulfs.

1803

11-18 January

 

Freycinet in Gulf St Vincent.

1803

20-29 January

 

Freycinet in Spencer Gulf.

1803

28-29 January

 

Freycinet: Port Champagny [Port Lincoln]

1803

1 February

 

Le Geographe leaves Kangaroo Island for St Peter and Francis Islands. Baudin had ordered Freycinet to rendezvous by 31 January. Calm weather delayed Le Casuarina which returned to Kangaroo Island on 1 Febrauary, but passed Le Geographe unseen in the night.

1803

5-7 February

 

Freycinet in Le Casuarina explores St. Francis Islands; searches for Baudin.

1803

5-11 February

 

Baudin surveys St Peter Island and mainland coast of Nuyts Archipelago [near Ceduna]

1803

7 February

 

Le Geographe: at Murat Bay.

Le Casuarina sails King George Sound.

1803

11 February

 

Le Geographe sails for King George Sound.

1803

17-28 February

 

Two ships at King George Sound [Albany, WA]

1803

March-April

5 March: halts coastal survey at Wessel Islands due to Investigator’s poor condition, and crew members’ ill health.

Baudin and Freycinet explore west and northwest coasts of New Holland.

1803

31 March-8 April

Ship repairs at Timor.

 

1803

April-June

Continues voyage around west and south coasts of Australia, back to Port Jackson [Sydney].

May-June: Timor.

1803

9 June

Arrives in Port Jackson after completing first circumnavigation of Australia.

 

1803

14 June

The Investigator condemned as unseaworthy.

 

1803

July

 

Baudin and many crew ill; abandons survey and returns to Ile de France [Mauritius].

1803

August

Sails for England as a passenger on HMS Porpoise.

 

1803

7 August

 

Arrives at Timor.

1803

17 August

HMS Porpoise shipwrecked off the coast of Queensland. Flinders returns to Port Jackson in the ship’s cutter. Crew rescued from Wreck Reef.

 

1803

16 September

 

Baudin dies in Ile de France, [Mauritius] aged 49.

1803

October

Sails for England in the schooner Cumberland.

 

1803

16 December

 

Le Geographe sails for France under command of Pierre Milius.

1803

17 December

Arrives in the Ile de France [Mauritius] for ship repairs. Made prisoner, as France at war with England; detained for 6˝ years. During detention, Flinders draws charts and champions the names ‘Terra Australis’, and ‘Australia’ for the entire southern continent, rather than ‘New Holland’.

Shares captivity with Trim until cat’s death in 1804.

 

1804

23 March

 

Le Geographe reaches France with live animals, and scientific specimens.

1805

23 May

HMS Investigator pronounced fit to sail. Takes Bauer, Brown and their collections back to England, arriving 13 October 1805.

 

1807

   

Publication of Volume I of Voyage de decouvertes aux terres australes, Peron and Freycinet’s account of Baudin’s expedition, and Volume I of Atlas [plates]. . French place names for ‘Terre Napoleon’ west of Wilson’s Promontory.

1810

10 March

Flinders released from detention.

 

1810

14 June

Flinders sails for England.

 

1810

24 October

Arrives in Portsmouth, England.

 

1810

14 December

 

Francois Peron dies.

1811

   

Freycinet published second part of Atlas of French expedition [charts]. French place names recorded for ‘Terre Napoleon’ features west of Wilson’s Promontory.

1812

1 April

Flinders’ daughter Anne born.

 

1814

18 July

Publication of Flinders’ account of the expedition, A Voyage to Terra Australis with Atlas.

 

1814

19 July

Flinders dies, aged 40.

 

1816

 

Volume II of Voyage de decouvertes aux terres australes published.

1824

1824

 

Second edition of Freycinet’s Atlas; French place names only on South East coast where French had been first to survey.

1836

28 December South Australia proclaimed a Province.

   

References

Australian dictionary of biography. Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press; London; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1966- Vol. 1. 1788-1850

Baudin, N. The Journal of Post Captain Nicolas Baudin. Translated by Christine Cornell. (Adelaide: Libraries Board of SA, 1974)

Brown, Anthony J. Ill-starred captains: Flinders and Baudin. Hindmarsh, S. Aust.: Crawford House Publishing, 2000

Brown, Robert. Nature's investigator: the diary of Robert Brown in Australia, 1801-1805 / compiled by D.T. Moore, T.G. Vallance & E.W. Groves. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study, 2001

Cooper, H.M. The Unknown Coast: being the explorations of Captain Matthew Flinders RN along the shores of South Australia 1802 (Adelaide: 1953)

The Encounter, 1802: art of the Flinders and Baudin voyages [compiled by] Sarah Thomas. Adelaide: Art Gallery of South Australia, 2002

Flinders, M. Voyage to Terra Australis London, 1814; facsimile edn. published by The Libraries Board of South Australia, 1966

Horner, F. B. The French reconnaissance: Baudin in Australia 1801-1803. Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1987.

Péron, Francois. A Voyage of Discovery to the Southern Hemisphere: performed by order of the Emperor Napoleon during the years 1801, 1802, 1803 and 1804. [Volume 1] London: Richard Phillips, 1809

Internet sites

Encounter 2002 - archived website on PANDORA
Brown, Anthony J. ‘Encounter 2002 Anchorages, landings & visits’
Brown, Anthony J. ‘Nicolas Baudin, 1802 & 1803, anchorages, landings & visits’

Matthew Flinders Collection [State Library of NSW]



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