Place Names of South Australia - L
Leigh Creek- Little Swamp
- Leigh Creek
- Levels, The
- Lewis, Hundred of
- Light, Hundred of
- Light Brook
- Light Pass
- Light, River
- Limestone Well
- Lincoln, Port
- Lincoln Gap
- Linden Park
- Lindley, Hundred of
- Litchfield Hut
- Little Swamp
Harry Leigh was employed by Alexander Glen, an associate of George H. Davenport and William Fowler, on an adjacent sheep run.
Also see South Australia - Mining - Coal.
The Observer of 26 August 1905, page 47a says it was named after "George Leigh, a stockman who was located for some years at Patay Springs, an outstation of Moolooloo."
Information on an alleged coal discovery is in the Advertiser,
2 February 1889, page 7b; also see
25 April 1890, page 3e,
15 March 1890, page 29b.
The evidence for the presence of coal in the neighbourhood, from which the specimens have been brought, must at present be regarded as somewhat slight, but there is sufficient to awaken much interest in the subject, and in the furtherance of both commercial and scientific objects it would be well to prove what underlies these plant-bearing shales of Leigh's Creek.
25 April 1890, page 3g,
19 July 1890, page 6g; also see
28 October 1890, page 5b,
1 and 4 November 1890, pages 5b and 7e,
22 December 1890, page 3f,
21 and 25 April 1891, pages 3h and 7f,
21, 22, 23, 28 and 29 May 1891, pages 5a-7a, 4h, 6f, 4e-6g and 4h, 2 June 1891, page 6f.
Also see Observer,
30 May 1891, pages 25a-29d,
13 June 1891, page 39b,
8 August 1891, page 15c,
12 March 1892, page 30a,
10 September 1892, page 25d,
20 and 27 May 1893, pages 12d and 14a,
25 November 1893, page 13b,
4 May 1895, pages 12a-42e,
31 August 1895, page 16d,
21 March 1896, page 42c,
9 October 1897, page 14c,
10 June 1891, page 7f,
3 and 6 November 1891, pages 6f and 4g,
22 January 1892, page 6g,
11, 15 and 19 March 1892, pages 4h, 5b and 4f-5b,
29 April 1892, page 7f,
4 and 6 May 1892, pages 7d and 7c,
3 September 1892, page 5a,
14 December 1892, page 5c.
Further information is in the Advertiser,
2 and 23 February 1893, pages 3d and 7c,
16 and 23 May 1893, pages 4e and 4g-7a,
10, 12 and 22 June 1893, pages 7e, 4d and 6h,
15 August 1893, page 7a,
18 November 1893, page 6d,
3 and 4 January 1893, pages 7b-h and 7g,
23 February 1893, pages 4g-6e,
15 and 21 March 1893, pages 5b and 4h-6e,
28 and 29 April 1893, pages 5b and 7g,
16 and 23 May 1893, pages 5a-7a and 4g,
9 June 1893, page 3g,
20 and 28 November 1893, pages 6b and 6e.
Also see Register,
28 November 1893, page 6e,
28 December 1894, page 3d,
30 April 1895, page 7a,
1 May 1895, page 4e,
22 June 1895, page 6i,
27 August 1895, page 6d,
4 May 1895, page 42e,
3 July 1895, page 6a,
14 March 1896, page 7a,
15 October 1896, page 7d,
31 July 1897, page 30a,
12 March 1898, page 4i,
23 October 1899, page 7c,
28 June 1901, page 4g,
9 May 1902, page 7i,
19 September 1902, page 4d,
19 December 1903, page 5f,
17 August 1904, page 6f,
20 August 1904, page 37a.
"Mining at Leigh Creek - Coal and Copper" is in the Advertiser,
5 June 1899, page 6a,
18 July 1903, page 16c,
22 August 1903, page 22e,
4 August 1906, page 41a,
6 and 13 April 1907, pages 39 and 39b;
the town and district are described in the Advertiser,
11 July 1899, page 7a,
9 December 1899, page 16c.
"The Wants of Leigh Creek" is in the Observer,
28 October 1899, page 14b.
"A Mine Awaiting Development" is in the Register,
17 August 1904, page 6f; also see
16 and 22 March 1907, pages 9h and 6a,
2 April 1907, page 7g,
24 and 25 November 1909, pages 6e and 9b,
6 January 1910, page 4i,
8 January 1910, page 6e,
27 November 1909, page 33e,
20 January 1910, page 7e,
17 February 1910, page 7i,
6 November 1912, page 14d,
13 June 1913, page 8e.
Photographs are in the Chronicle,
10 September 1910, page 29.
The reminiscences of Mr J.W. Duck are in the Register,
22 April 1908, page 7c,
25 April 1908, page 38c,
an obituary is in the Register,
8 April 1912, page 4g,
13 April 1912, page 41a.
An "Interview With Leigh Creek Pioneer", Mr J.H. Reid, is in the Advertiser, 6 December 1916, page 6h.
Also see Advertiser,
29 and 30 November 1916, pages 7a and 7e,
5, 6 and 30 October 1917, pages 7c, 6d and 5e,
16 October 1918, page 6e,
3 November 1917, page 18b,
12 May 1919, page 4e,
22 and 28 May 1919, pages 3g and 6h,
31 May 1919, page 13e,
26 July 1919, page 2g,
10 October 1919, page 9c,
27 November 1919, page 6e,
21 January 1920, page 6e,
13 November 1920, page 12c,
11 July 1925, page 60a.
"Brown Coal - How to Treat It" is in the Register,
6 May 1922, page 5g; also see
12 January 1926, page 13c.
Its school opened in 1895 and had its name altered to "Leigh Creek South Area" in 1980. "School in Hot Weather" is in the Chronicle, 17 February 1906, page 13e.
"Showers, Foxes and Droughts" is in the Register,
22 March 1926, page 7e.
It derives from the Old English lehtune - 'a herb garden' or leactun - 'an enclosure for leeks'.
Its school opened in 1880 and closed in 1989.
Of interest is the fact that Sir Frederick Leighton (1830-1896) was President of the Royal Academy.
27 January 1896, page 6e,
1 and 7 February 1896, pages 5e and 7d.
The use of a divining rod by Joseph Denton on J. Warne's property is reported in the Register,
3 June 1907, page 6e.
Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Water Divining and Rainmaking.
The opening of a hall is reported in the Observer,
4 December 1909, page 15a; also see
18 July 1914, page 18e.
An obituary of Thomas Doherty is in the Register, 28 September 1917, page 4h, 9 October 1917, page 4f,
Observer, 6 October 1917, page 39a,
of Mrs Stewart McWaters on 19 January 1918, page 11a,
of J.Q. Hogan on 31 March 1923, page 35c,
of Michael Hogan on 23 June 1923, page 35c,
of Andrew W. Wade on 2 December 1927, page 15h.
A polo match is reported in the Observer,
3 March 1923, page 16e.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Polo.
Near Dry Creek. The name was taken from an old homestead which, today, is on the State Heritage List and stands on part lots 101 and 103, section 2185, Hundred of Yatala.
The place at Dry Creek is described in the Register, 10 August 1883, page 5f.
There are few if any men in South Australia who have gone in for raising one particular breed of sheep, either so practically or so successfully, as Mr E.W. Pitts of the stock farm, appropriately called ?The Levels?, at Dry Creek... Originally the place was part of the extensive sheep-breeding properties of Mr C.B. Fisher, of Hill River fame, some 17 years ago, and Mr Pitts, who was his able manager, purchased the sections...
Thomas and William Laidlaw Davidson were lessees of nearby sections which they called 'Levens'. The family came from Perth in Scotland and the town of Leven is 37 km from that city.
The school opened in 1882 and closed in 1943.
Mr T. Davidson's farm is described in the Register, 16 November 1889, page 6b.
The next stage was at Levens, the station of Mr T. Davidson. This gentleman, like many of his neighbours who have gone over the Border, has discovered that this part of the district is not fit for agriculture, and that it is not suitable for sheep and cattle, unless in conjunction with land further from the sea owing to the prevalence of coast disease. He has, however, found it eminently adapted for horses.... Some of the land which would not grow wheat has been turned to account by the planting of wattles. One plantation of about 100 acres was started about five years ago and was found to be in such good condition as to earn the warm approval of the Conservator...
LevishamThe Register of 31 January 1868, page 8h describes it as a subdivision of part section 295 at Glen Osmond into 40 allotments and "being distinguished for its salubrity, the soil being good and the water excellent."
Lewis, Hundred of
John Lewis, MLC (1898-1923). Born at Brighton in 1842, he ran away from home in 1856 and worked on country properties, where he became an expert bushman. 'He was sometimes brusque, always brief and forthright in his political stance... work not talk was his philosophy.'
Also see South Australia - Politics.
Biographical details of John Lewis are in the Register,
17 January 1914, page 15e,
1 January 1923, page 7b and
his obituary in the Register,
27 August 1923, page 6d-h; also see
29 August 1923, page 11c.
Its nomenclature is lost in the mists of time; however, the most likely candidate for the honour is the Reverend John Milbourne Lewis who was the local Congregational Church minister from 10 April 1853 until his death on 29 September 1855.
Rodney Cockburn's statement in What's in a Name
that James Lewis came out to South Australia with Colonel Light
in the Rapid is incorrect - he came in 1838 on that ship's second voyage to the colony.
Information on Rev J.M. Lewis is in the Register,
17 May 1909, page 9c.
An interesting ceremony took place in the graveyard of the Gawler River Methodist Church, namely the unveiling of a memorial stone erected over the remains of the Rev J.M. Lewis who was the minister of the Gawler Congregational Church for two and a half years in the fifties. During that time he was closely connected with friends of Gawler River and expressed a wish to be buried [there]...
School examinations are reported in the Register,
30 October 1867, page 2f.
According to records in the Department of Education the school was known as "Port Gawler East" until 1876.
The schoolhouse was demolished after it closed in 1945.
An Arbor Day is reported in the Chronicle,
16 September 1905, page 14e.
See South Australia - Education - Arbor Days.
The 90th birthday of Edward Jenkin is reported upon in the Register,
23 April 1912, page 6i;
an obituary is in the Observer,
29 January 1916, page 32c.
LightAlso see under South Australia - The Colony - Miscellany.
Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General
Essays on Colonel Light
(Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)
Colonel William Light - Surveyor of Adelaide
He gave up his command to undertake the duty of Surveyor-General from the entire desire to serve his own country, although he sacrificed his pecuniary interest materially in doing so. He was a beautiful draftsman, a great linguist, a daring and accomplished horseman, and a brave and gallant soldier, as all his companions in arms can testify.
(Colonel George Palmer, Colonisation Commissioner, cited in the Register, 23 February 1874, page 6a.)
Colonel Palmer, a South Australian Commissioner, takes up the story - "Mr Montefiore and myself were deputed the duty of superintending and fitting out... of the little brig the Rapid previous to her sailing from this country with the first surveyors to form a settlement on the South Coast of New Holland. Although the responsibility rested with us, the whole credit... was due to our gallant friend Colonel Light, our only duty being to urge the taking of a larger quantity of stores and instruments than that which he himself proposed, so anxious was he to meet the economical views of the South Australian Board, and of conducting the expedition upon the strictest economy.
"Upon taking leave of my poor friend... a few hours previous to her sailing, the last words he said to me were, ' Now, I trust to your sending us out some split peas and a little pork, in case we may be unable to catch kangaroos, or too much engaged to spare the time from our surveying duties, for my experience during the Peninsular war nothing kept so well or was so nutritious...'."
The Rapid, of 162 tons, sailed on 4 May 1836 and arrived at Kangaroo Island on 19 August 1836. Among Light's instructions were to explore the coast line in an endeavour to find a suitable location for the main settlement.
At Port Lincoln he found "no requisites whatever" for a site for a capital - the land appeared poor and barren and the only available water was a spring below high-water mark. As to Encounter Bay he opined - "Sand alone can never preserve a clear channel against the scud of the sea, and particularly such as most inevitably be thrown on the coast about [that place]."
Proceeding northwards he examined the creek which today abuts the modern-day Port Adelaide; to his eyes the plain spreading to the east "presented a most attractive appearance, resembling English park scenery. It sloped backwards for several miles to a line of shady hills intersected by picturesque valleys, terminating in the elevated range of Mount Lofty."
As he considered the harbour "beautiful and safe" he all but determined a location on the plain as the position for a future city. Earlier, on 6 November 1836, George S. Kingston, William G. Field, first mate of the Rapid, and John Morphett had discovered a river; it was subsequently dubbed the River Torrens by Governor Hindmarsh on 3 June 1837.
On Thursday, 29 December 1836, George S. Kingston, the Deputy Surveyor General, "joined Colonel Light at his camp on the river... when we spent some time in examining the locality which I had recommended to him for the site of the city as far east as King William Street, and expressed himself fully satisfied with the situation. The Governor and Mr Fisher came up to the camp in the afternoon. Colonel Light informed them that he had decided on fixing the site ... on the spot I had pointed out...
"The next morning... Colonel Light accompanied the Governor and walked with him to examine the site... The Governor objected strongly to the site as being too far from the harbour, and on examining the plain on the way back to the camp Colonel Light, in deference to the Governor, agreed to fix the site about 1 miles to the westward... After the Governor's departure [Colonel Light] informed me of what had taken place. We spent the evening in talking over the matter, when I expressed my regret for his thus allowing his better judgement to be biassed by the opinions of one so much his inferior."
On 31 December 1836 Colonel Light spent some time with Kingston in thoroughly examining the banks of the river "and the plain near our camp, the new site for the city as recommended by the Governor, when Colonel Light felt convinced that not only the situation in question was liable to be flooded but that in every other respect the natural features there did not afford the same advantages for the site of the capital as the more elevated position pointed out by me and which he had determined on the Thursday before, and much to my satisfaction decided finally to fix the site as first determined on by him... Thus ended the first act in the foundation of the city..."
Both before and after the arrival of Governor Hindmarsh Colonel Light "and his gallant friends Field and Pullen' had many difficulties to contend with - Colonel Palmer continues - "They, however, commenced their arduous duties under the direction and support of their indefatigable leader with a zeal and assiduity worthy of the country from whence they were deputed. Although Colonel Light was supplied with such provisions and instruments as his little brig could carry, his exchequer was but limited, and (notwithstanding all his deputy surveyors and surveying labourers were promised wages at a certain rate previous to their embarkation) shortly after he had commenced his operations on shore the funds placed at his disposal by the Commissioners became exhausted.
"He then induced the men to continue their duties by receiving payments from time to time in notes-of-hand of his own after all the ready money belonging to himself which he chanced to have with him had been advanced by him for that purpose, and he completed the survey of the Town of Adelaide by his credit with the Banking Company.
"Upon the arrival of the Governor... he was still compelled to continue the same mode of paying the men, who, from the great confidence they placed in their leader, accepted this mode of payment. The South Australian Company's agent, also placing the greatest possible reliance on Colonel Light's honour and integrity, cashed these notes-of-hand for the workmen, or supplied them with necessaries in lieu of them to a certain extent, consequently at that important period the surveys were in danger of coming to a suspension, and in that case the formation of the colony might have failed.
"[He then] applied to Mr Fisher for aid at this important crisis. The latter stated his regret that he had no money at his command for Colonel Light's purposes, but mentioned having just received from the Commissioners in England some pork and peas. This he was ordered to sell in the colony, and he therefore offered to place his pork at the Colonel's disposal.
"The Manager of the South Australian Company being most anxious to forward Colonel Light's views, and to assist him in every possible manner, agreed to purchase a large quantity of this pork at 20 per cent profit upon the invoice price, as ordered by the Secretary to the Commissioners, expecting it would be required for the purposes of the Company, whalers, or other persons, viz., 400 Germans from Bremen, whom they were sending out to South Australia. He then gave Colonel Light and additional credit for #500, and took his notes-of-hand from the surveying labourers to that amount, and then the survey went on..."
Despite intermittent harassment and disapproval from both the Governor and influential citizens the survey of the city and North Adelaide was completed on 10 March 1837. It comprised 1,042 sections - 591 allotments were sold for cash; one allotment was set apart for the Town Hall; four allotments for public buildings; thirty-eight cancelled to form public squares and 408 were reserved for the holders of preliminary land orders.
The first land was sold on 27 March 1837 when 591 town acres were purchased at an average of a little over #5 ($10) per acre. Within a few years these allotments were selling at from #80 to #100 each, and for those considered to be well situated as much as #250 were demanded. The outcome of the boom was disappointment for the majority, and in witnessing of the resale some four or five years afterwards at prices not reaching one-fifth of those rates.
The human side of Colonel Light is exemplified by an interesting snippet of history concerning a Mr Corney who came out to South Australia "with the survey party under Mr Kingston':
When the survey of Adelaide was being commenced all the officers and men were grouped around Colonel Light who said to Corney "Now, Corney, undo the chain and if you live to be an old man you can say you measured the first town acre...
One of his underlings, the surveyor R.G. Symonds, obviously supported these sentiments when he wrote the following satirical poem:
On Reading the Mystified Square Controversy in the South Australian Register
The difference between one mile square and square mile one
Oh! Why should it puzzle me?
The last refers to area alone,
The first to boundary.
In laying out our Adelaide City
Square acres were the go,
And puzzled many - more's the pity!
Even the D.S.GL* was so.
For our new Northern Capital,
Half-acres are the rule,
If square, to find root principle
Need we all go back to school?
* Vide South Australian Gazette November, 1838
During the ensuing months Gov Hindmarsh continued to harangue Light while at the same time making conflicting statements to his superiors in England. On 1 November 1837 he addressed Lord Glenelg in a tranquil manner:
With regard to the colony itself nothing can be more satisfactory than its progress... The climate is delightful, and the land far surpasses in richness and capabilities anything yet known in New Holland... The drawback that Adelaide suffers from its distance from the Harbour or Glenelg roads, is almost compensated by its superior advantages in point of situation.
These specious tidings emanated from a Kangaroo Island sealer named Walker and as Geoffrey Dutton succinctly remarks, "It is hard to say who was the original liar, Walker or Stevenson." This blatant attempt at deception resulted in a demand for land at "Walker's Harbour' and the Governor in a stupid move, albeit with intent to further his own pecuniary interests, intimated that he would take up two sections there once the land had been surveyed.
As previously stated Light was unimpressed with the Encounter Bay area and this move to undermine his surveying authority was repugnant to him and he protested to the Commissioners in London:
So if I now go on this fool's trip, losing perhaps six months of time looking for some place to please these gentlemen, some other drunken sealer, for a lark only, come and say he has seen another harbour as superior as Plymouth Sound is to Goodwin Sands... nothing but self-interest prevails [here], and e'er long we shall witness it too forcibly.
This news was gleefully accepted by Gov Hindmarsh who proceeded to seek permission from the Home authorities to remove the capital to Encounter Bay! Light was incensed at this underhand move and proceeded methodically and logically to demolish the spurious suggestions as to the worth of the lauded site.
A further blow to Light and his loyal band of surveyors came in December 1837 when a letter arrived from the Commissioners in London criticising his choice for the capital. His reply was brief and to the point - "find someone else to take my place."
An uneasy peace reigned pending further advice from London and so Light set out on an exploration northward where he named such features as the Barossa Range and Lyn(e)doch Valley. By March 1838 over 100,000 acres of rural sections of land had been surveyed and on 17 May, by a strange quirk of fate, Light obtained in a ballot the honour of making the first choice for the selection of a country section "which the blackguard Editor of the Gazette laid hold of to hint at something like a trick."
In April 1838 the Lord Goderich arrived with further gloomy news for Colonel Light for the Commissioners were of the opinion that surveys were proceeding too slowly and advised him that they had sought the opinion of an "expert", Lieutenant Dawson of the Royal Engineers, who offered the opinion that the daily output of each surveyor was far too low and proceeded to give his opinions as to how the surveys could be expedited.
In a lengthy and unequivocal response to the Resident Commissioner, Light left no doubt as to his opinion of the machinations of bureaucracy and concluded that if similar complaints were forthcoming he hoped "to be relieved of all surveying".
The South Australian Company, which had a large amount of capital employed in the infant colony, in a move to protect its interests, informed the Commissioners that if the company was to avoid liquidation urgent moves were necessary to speed up surveys and to this end running surveys should be undertaken. This type of survey is diametrically opposed to that of the trigonometrical method and, as to efficacy, is open to question. However, in their wisdom and following professional advice from Lt. Dawson they acceded to the Company's request.
Lurking in the background in London at this time was G.S. Kingston and there would appear to be no doubt that he was, by acts of self-aggrandisement, "feeding" Lt Dawson and the Commissioners with his own thoughts on surveys within South Australia. This is given further credence in a remark made by the Commissioners to the effect that Light "had sent home one of the most efficient officers of the surveying staff."
Upon hearing of Kingston's machinations Light was understandably enraged. His response in the form of a letter to E.G. Wakefield was erudite, coupled with a reasoned condemnation of Kingston; it reads in part:
Your letter was too late. I had sent my resignation in December last. I could not stand all the attacks that were made against me; those by the ignorant or the malevolent here I did not care for, but to find by every ship from England a long list of censures passed by the Commissioners on my proceedings, and forwarded through Mr Rowland Hill, who I firmly believe to be a mover and writer of these, is more than my feelings can stand...
Mr Hill [then] calls in the aid of Lt. Dawson to prove that I have not done my duty... to my mortification, the next vessel brought a reproof still stronger and more insulting, for here I see that not only has Lt. Dawson been again consulted but even Mr Kingston has been questioned on the proper mode of surveying and I now receive a method and a diagram drawn out by Mr Kingston, my subordinate, with instructions from Mr R. Hill to follow them.
What would the Commissioners think if I told them that Mr Kingston (an officer of their own appointment), and who was to command the whole expedition had any accident happened to me, knew not how to survey. He is totally incapable of surveying - of triangulating a country he knows nothing. He is much worse than any of the junior assistants I had and whom he used to abuse so much to me, and for this reason I consented to his going home in the Rapid. I did not send him... He confessed to me that surveying was not his forte, but that he was an engineer. I told him not to come again as Deputy-Surveyor, which he said he would do...
I am now completely tired of serving the Commissioners and, after founding their colony for them in spite of every abuse, I may now retire to seek a livelihood by my own industry... I will make one remark to you in the shape of a question. Is it likely that the Commissioners could have found many surveyors to stand against the powerful attacks from the Governor, the Press, and many others as firmly as I have done for their good?
... I am harassed in mind beyond all you can conceive... I have, thank God, always acted conscientiously, and I have hitherto met with approbation from my superiors, from men of the highest rank, and now on the wane of life to find my conduct, my character, called in question. By whom? by Mr Rowland Hill and vulgar men. My God, I cannot stand this. You have been deceived... I am tired of Mr Kingston, and he shall have the management of the survey as soon as he arrives.
[Mr Morphett said that he had the honour] to propose the health of our talented and esteemed guest, Colonel Light. (The applause which followed this announcement was enthusiastic beyond description - we have attended many public meetings on popular and other occasions, but never witnessed so soul-stirring a scene. The chairman remained standing for a considerable time without the possibility of obtaining a hearing, and he continued) I am delighted the way you have received my proposed toast...
The Colonial Commissioner then made a few remarks - Gentlemen, if the combination of every thing that was honourable, every thing that was gentlemanly, coupled with extraordinary talents, centred in one man, that one person was him on whom you have bestowed a testimony of your regard, and indeed the object of that testimony is most richly deserving of it...
Colonel Light rose to address the meeting, but his emotion was so great that after several ineffectual efforts to do so he reseated himself. The company instantly rose en masse, and the applause lasted a considerable time. Colonel Light hoped the company would allow him to propose a toast which he felt would be received with much enthusiasm - "The laboring classes of the colony". Immense Cheering.
Light's response was immediate:
I am allowed one week to consider whether I will undertake a running survey... I do not require one week... but say at once that I will not do it, and that I despise and contemn the language used by Mr Rowland Hill. The subject of the correspondence, etc, etc, between him and Mr Kingston I shall note at leisure. In the meantime, I must add, that Mr Hill's motive is too apparent to be misunderstood.
It is my determination to stand or fall with Colonel Light under whom I have had the honor to serve for the last two months, and because I see very little prospect of an advantage to an inferior officer like myself when the Superior who has passed through all the dangers and difficulties of a first settlement in a new colony, in the services of the Commissioners, is to be rewarded as Colonel Light has been.
Thus, Kingston took over and almost immediately Surveyor Nixon resigned and lambasted him - "Your manner was altogether that of a master towards his slave than as the conduct of one gentleman to another." Gov Gawler, following an application from Kingston for the vacant position, aired his views - "he is unpopular, particularly among the younger surveyors. The promotion, I am persuaded, would have had altogether a bad effect, I therefore refused it... There is however an excellent substitute in the person of Captain Sturt..."
In the course of time the unfettered truth contained in Light's correspondence, where he vehemently defended his actions, resulted in an "olive branch" being extended to him, when Robert Torrens, Chairman of the South Australian Commissioners in London, wrote to him prior to Governor Gawler's departure from England:
I believe he [Gawler] possesses in an unusual degree the conciliatory manner, and the determined purpose, which are calculated to extinguish jealousies and dissensions, and to restore to the Colony that harmony and cooperation which weakness and wickedness have disturbed.
I have great satisfaction in announcing to you that you have been appointed a member of the [South Australian Legislative] Council; and I confidently hope that as brother heroes of the Peninsula, Colonel Gawler and yourself will act together in what he has happily called "the mighty energy of mutual confidence..."
Your representations on subjects connected with the survey came too late to be useful, and it is much to be regretted that your opinions were not fully expressed to the Commissioners... But enough of past mistakes... I request it of you, as a personal favour to myself, that you will exert your influence in restoring harmony, and in inducing all parties to forget and forgive...
However, a remedy of all the past injustices heaped upon Light was in Gov Gawler's hands but, unfortunately, he was impervious when it came to recognising the state of his compatriots wounded pride nor the debt owed to him by the colony. A petition from concerned citizens seeking Light's reappointment mysteriously disappeared and other machinations within Government circles stymied any semblance of justice to the lamenting Colonel Light.
Among the excuses brought forward by Gov Gawler was the suggestion that "his health, I have reason to be sure, is and then was altogether unequal to the situation" which, apparently, in retrospect, was not without foundation. However, it must be said that Light's reappointment, if only for a short time, "would have salved his wounded honour."
Shortly after his arrival in South Australia the Governor was placed in an embarrassing position when a letter arrived from the Commissioners in London intimating that they had "not considered it necessary to accept [Light's] resignation."
Gawler's reaction must be considered all but dishonourable for he went to Light's home and, finding him absent, wrote the following letter:
The object of my call was to make to you a communication from the Commissioners, which I trust will be gratifying to you, and strengthen the impression which I have endeavoured to convey, that there exists amongst them a most friendly feeling towards you.
It gives me however pain to say that it is not in my power to endeavour to carry their ultimate object into effect, as after waiting for three weeks after my arrival in this colony in hopes of seeing a course by which I might induce you to accept again the office of Surveyor-General, I sent a strong communication with regard to this situation to Captain Sturt, that I could not retract from it. I did not calculate, when I wrote to Captain Sturt, upon having the opportunity which the enclosed expression of the feelings of the Commissioners would have afforded me, if the office had continued open.
The reasons that led me to fix Adelaide where it is I do not expect to be generally understood or calmly judged of at the present. My enemies, however, by disputing their validity in every particular, have done me a good service of fixing the whole of the responsibility upon me. I am perfectly willing to bear it; and leave to posterity, and not to them, to decide whether I am entitled to praise or to blame.
Hard facts disprove the claim that Colonel Light was a superb town planner... The failure comes in the subdivision. Streets should run across the compass, so that both sides shall have their fair share of sun and shade. Long, straight streets are uninteresting, and, in a hot windy land, are undesirable. The placing of the squares has resulted in their inevitable crucifixion by traffic requirements...
I deplore lost opportunities such as the fine boulevard which might have overlooked the river, and the lack of a single block on which public building might be placed to advantage.
The Bible is my warrant. The "New Jerusalem" which is to come down out of heaven, is described as lying "four-square the length as large as the breadth', and Adelaide "lieth four-square" and the length is as large as the breadth...
His Last Days
Retiring into private life Colonel Light attempted to find solace in the activities of his surveying partnership with B.T. Finniss and, despite his deteriorating health, he participated in a special survey for the South Australian Company in the Lyn(e)doch Valley in December 1838. However, by 21 January 1839 he was forced to return to Adelaide following several collapses in the severe heat.
At this time Light had contracted with William Gandy, brother of his de facto wife, Maria, to build a home on section 1 of the provisional survey that, as previously related, had been allotted to him. While awaiting its completion he continued to reside in a flimsy and inflammable hut on North Terrace. One night at 2 pm the hut of his next door neighbour burst into flame; the breeze freshened and within a short time Light's dwelling was an inferno. Nothing was saved except the clothes they stood up in.
In a macabre gesture the Governor invited the despondent Light to Government House for a meal; he was less than amused:
He had never asked me inside his home until I was unfortunately burnt out of my own, when he knew that I had not saved a shirt or a pair of stockings, in short nothing... The next day he sent me a Governor's personal card of invitation to dinner - of course I refused.
I am now living a most retired life and doing what I can for my own support, independent of Patronage of any kind. My losses have pulled me down in purse sadly, but before two years more are passed, if I live so long, I hope to be clear and as comfortable as a broken constitution from harassed mind will admit. I thank God amidst all my anxieties and troubles my conscience has never for one moment caused me pain, but on the contrary, because I know that if not during my life my proceedings be defended, they will be when I am dead...
We should ill discharge our duty if we hesitated to repeat here our humble testimony to his high professional ability or to his worth as a man. That on many points of Colonel Light's proceedings... we entertained views at variance with his, is notorious; but we are not so self-opinionated as to assert that in all instances those views were correct, or that in any way Colonel Light's conduct was not governed by a sincere desire to promote what he conceived to be the permanent interests of the province.
Yet, even in the hottest times of political dissension - and we can safely appeal to the columns of this journal in proof of the fact - our esteem for the amiable character of Colonel Light, and our respect for his great and varied talents, were not exceeded by those entertained by his warmest admirers...
His friends in the City lost no time in forming a committee to raise funds "towards erecting a lasting monument to the worth and services of that great and distinguished man..." When subscriptions were first collected they were not sufficient to justify the committee in approving any design and, accordingly, the funds were left on deposit, with interest, with the South Australian Banking Company.
There was much dissension as to the best location for the structure; some felt the suggestion of Light Square to be absurd while others plumped for Mount Lofty "as it is the only one of any consequence to enable the traveller or seaman to discover the direction of the metropolis of this country."
Statues to Colonel Light
On 11 October 1840 David Crafer of the Norfolk Hotel, ?near Mount Lofty?, addressed his proposal for the erection of a ?plain column? at the summit to commemorate the memory of Colonel William Light:
It is proposed to erect upon the summit of Mount Lofty (where there is abundance of stone and other material) a plain column of considerable size and altitude.....
It is not proposed to deprive Light Square of a monument worthy of the name of the great man whose mortal remains are there deposited, but to furnish that part of the city with a mausoleum better calculated perhaps to honor the place of his interment, than a mere mass of masonry, which [if placed] in such a position would soon be comparatively eclipsed.
If the design I have announced should be honoured by the approval of the authorities and influential colonists, I will be at the expense of preparing estimates for publication, and then declare how far I am disposed to assist in the erection.
Some three years later it is apparent that Mr Crafer's suggestion had not been adopted:
I think we might well recall the public attention to one suggested by Mr Crafer as decidedly the best. It was simply to raise a plain column or tower on the top of Mount Lofty. All, I am sure, will agree that it is the most useful, as also the most substantial mode of spending the fund [of £900] - if it ever to be spent - and preserving his memory.
At this time there was much dissension as to the best location for the structure; some felt the suggestion of Light Square to be absurd while others plumped for Mount Lofty ?as it is the only one of any consequence to enable the traveller or seaman to discover the direction of the metropolis of this country.?
Early in 1843 a foundation stone was laid in Light Square over Colonel Light's grave and the proposed monument was designed by George S. Kingston in the form of a pentagonal Gothic cross ?in the style of the ancient... crosses, the most admirable of which were raised by Edward the First at places on which the body of his beloved Queen Eleanor rested when being conveyed to Westminster Abbey for interment.?
The tender of a Mr Lewis was accepted for its construction and, early in 1844, he was ?at his post?. However, by June of that year a lack of funds prevented its completion but, never daunted, a ?grand concert? was arranged to augment the working fund. With assistance from government the project was completed in 1846, but there does not appear to have been a formal unveiling ceremony. In 1854, a high fence was erected around it to save it ?from desecration by some ruffians.?
By 1892 the monument was in a parlous condition and, concerned at its decay, the city authorities commissioned an architect, Daniel Garlick, to inspect and report upon its state of repair. He concluded that salt damp was eating it away due to the absence of a damp course; further, he opined that a cement render which had been coated over the whole structure had only hastened its demise and concluded that ?it will crumble into dust in a few years.?
Accordingly, it was evident that action, both at the government and civic level, was necessary in order to perpetuate the late Surveyor-General's memory. However, from the outset it was evident that public movements were similar in one respect in that ?renewed interest alternates with unsympathetic lassitude.?
A preliminary meeting was held in the Town Hall on 15 January 1892 when the Mayor, Mr F.W. Bullock, presided over a representative gathering that decided that a public appeal be made for funds to erect a replacement for the existing edifice in Light Square. On 25 November 1892 tenders were called and, by April 1893, twenty-three designs had been received; ?drawings in pen and ink, sepia and a few quite adequately developed? were brought before the committee but:
- The nearest approach to [Light's] physical presentment as far as we know was that of a sculptor, who had modelled our first surveyor in plaster of Paris in correct military custom... The pose was easy and natural and the carriage of the head good, and the suggestiveness of the hand pointing as indicating the city... was a happy idea.
All suggestions were rejected and the project then fell into years of apathy; however, it is apparent that the committee were amenable to the ?hand pointing? idea. By July 1897 public contributions had amounted to £400 with a further £500 promised by the Adelaide City Council while, previously, the government of Sir John Downer had promised a gift of £1,000 but it later transpired that ?it was placed on the estimates but afterwards struck out.?
By 1901 another wave of action flowed over the community and a cry went up that the obvious time to lay a foundation stone for the project was in April 1902 on the same date as the memorial at Victor Harbor to commemorate the meeting between Captain Matthew Flinders and the Frenchman, Captain Nicolas Baudin. This idea foundered quickly.
By 1904 the committee had come to realise that two projects should be undertaken, namely, a replacement memorial in Light Square and a monument to be erected in Victoria Square depicting Colonel Light. As to the first suggestion the design of an architect, Mr H.L. Jackman, was accepted in October 1904; it was to be 31 feet in height, the same as its predecessor, and the crowning feature was ?a splendid symbol of the work of the first surveyor... in the shape of a bronze theodolite. An unassuming memorial wreath of bronze is secured to the polished surface of the shaft... the structure is of South Australian granite.?
In November 1904 tenders were called for the removal of the ?old city landmark? while, at the same time, Mr J.J. Leahy's tender for the erection of the replacement was accepted. Messrs A.W. Dobbie & Co. did the casting for the bronze work, Mr F. Burmeister the engraving, while Mr F.H. Herring was entrusted to polish the monolith in his factory on West Terrace. It was placed in position on 14 June 1905 and unveiled by the Mayor on the 21st of June of that year.
The statue, sculptured by Mr W. Birnie Rhind, ARSA, of Edinburgh, Scotland, was unveiled by the Governor, Sir George Le Hunte, on 21 November 1906 at a site in the centre of King William Street, 30 feet south of the Franklin Street alignment. In 1919 a wreath from the first Australian Town Planning Conference, held in Adelaide in 1917, was attached to the statue and in 1938 it was shifted to Montefiore Hill to a place now known as ?Light's Vision?; a plaque was added to the pedestal bearing an extract from his journals.
- The following source notes relate to the erection of Colonel Light's commemorative column and statue in Light and Victoria Squares:
Register, 24 July 1841, p. 3, 18 and 22 February 1843, pp. 2 and 2, 23 September 1843, p. 1, 12 June 1844, p.3, 30 September 1846, p. 4, 31 July 1854, p. 3, 16 January 1892, p. 6, 28 April 1892, pp. 4 and 5, 1 October 1892, p. 2 (supp.), 25 November 1892, p. 5, 15 April 1893, p. 1 (supp.), 21 July 1897, p. 6, 31 July 1901, p. 4, 15 August 1901, p. 9, 19 September 1903, p. 9, 25 February 1904, p. 7, 13 April 1904, p. 4, 10 and 31 May 1904, pp. 7 and 7, 18 and 19 October 1904, pp. 4 and 4, 12 November 1904, p. 6d-f, 19 January 1905, p. 4, 1 and 10 February 1905, pp. 4 and 4, 13 May 1905, p. 10, 15, 20, 21, 22 and 28 June 1905, pp. 4, 4, 7, 7 and 7, 31 October 1905, p. 4, 21 and 27 November 1906, pp. 4 and 4.
A letter written about Aborigines by Colonel Light in October 1836 is reproduced in the Register, 4 October 1890, page 5a.
"The Founder of Adelaide" is in the Register,
28 November 1906, page 6b.
A public dinner to Colonel Light is reported in the Southern Australian,
16 June 1838, page 4a.
An article on his early days in Adelaide is in the Chronicle,
25 November 1876, page 5b.
A photograph of a panel house brought from England by Colonel Light and used as an office is in the Observer,
17 November 1917, page 26,
of a memorial service in Victoria Square on
18 October 1919, page 24.
An obituary of Joseph Bell, "who imported the first hearse and used it for the first time to convey Colonel Light to Light Square", is in the Register,
26 August 1879, page 5a.
"Colonel Light's Burial Place" is in the Register,
17 October 1922, page 8h.
Information on Colonel Light from B.T. Finniss is in the Register,
11 August 1881, page 7a.
The Register of
3 February 1859, page 2h has a report on the City Council "drinking in Australian wine to the memory of Colonel Light [in a silver cup] presented to them for that purpose by some of the founders of the colony." Also see
14 December 1878, page 13a.
"The Life of Adelaide's Founder" is narrated on 11 October 1927, page 10a.
The presentation of a portrait of Colonel Light to the Adelaide corporation is reported in the Register, 18 September 1877, page 6c.
A proposal to erect a monument on Mount Lofty is canvassed in the Southern Australian,
20 October 1840, page 3e:
A plain column of considerable size and altitude, having within a spiral staircase, and its capitol furnished with an appropriate balustrade and other appendages... the whole to be known as "Colonel Light's Observatory"...
24 July 1841, page 3e,
18 and 22 February 1843, pages 2f and 2d,
23 September 1843, page 1b,
12 June 1844, page 3d,
30 September 1846, page 4c,
31 July 1854, page 3c,
23 May 1865, page 2f.
"The Old Memorial - When Was it Erected" is in the Register on
28 June 1905, page 7c.
A sketch is in the Pictorial Australian in
a photograph is in the Chronicle,
29 October 1904, page 30.
Also see Register,
10 December 1891, page 4h,
16 January 1892, page 6c,
12 December 1891, page 30a,
16 and 25 January 1892, pages 4d and 6d,
22 February 1892, page 6c,
30 January 1892, page 5f,
16 January 1892, page 6c,
13 February 1892, page 5a,
9 and 28 April 1892, pages 5b and 4g-5b,
1 July 1892, page 6f,
3 September 1892, page 5c,
1 and 29 October 1892, pages 2a (supp.) and 4g-2d (supp.)
Also see Register,
7 and 26 November 1892, pages 7b and 5c,
15 April 1893 (supp.), page 1f,
1 and 4 May 1893, pages 3e and 4h,
19 July 1893, page 7e,
5 August 1893, page 5a,
16 December 1893, page 5c,
21 July 1897, page 6d,
5 December 1899, page 4h,
31 July 1901, page 4f,
10 and 15 August 1901, pages 9e and 9h.
The saga is continued in the Register,
1 and 19 September 1903, pages 4e and 9c,
19 January 1904, page 4e,
25 February 1904, page 7h,
10 March 1904, page 3i,
13 April 1904, page 4e,
10 and 31 May 1904, pages 7c and 7i,
18 and 19 October 1904, pages 4f and 4f,
12 November 1904, page 6d-f,
8 September 1928, page 19c.
"The Founder of Adelaide" is in the Register,
9 March 1904, page 5c,
26 March 1904, page 40a.
Also see Register,
19 January 1905, page 4e,
1 February 1905, page 4i,
10 February 1905, page 4d,
13 May 1905, page 10e,
7, 8, 15, 17, 20, 21, 22, 24 and 28 June 1905, pages 4f, 4f, 4f, 6f, 4d, 4c-f-7a, 4e-7d, 6g and 7c,
1 July 1905, page 6f,
18 and 31 October 1905, pages 6d and 4e,
5 April 1906, page 3h,
19, 21, 24, 27, 28 and 29 November 1906, pages 4d, 4e, 8d, 4f-5c-e, 6b-e-9a-10d and 8c,
4, 7 and 8 December 1906, pages 4e, 3g and 11c.
Photographs are in the The Critic,
28 June 1905, page 14,
24 November 1906, page 30,
1 December 1906, page 27,
7 December 1937, page 20b.
In 1938 it was shifted to Montefiore Hill to a place now known as "Light's Vision"; a plaque was added to the pedestal bearing an extract from his journals. In 1919 a wreath from the first Australian Town Planning Conference, held in Adelaide in 1917, was attached to the statue.
"The Founder of Adelaide - Where Was He Buried" is in the Advertiser,
17 February 1905, page 6g.
An interview with William Jacob, an assistant-surveyor to Colonel Light, is in the Register,
8 August 1901, page 6d,
"The Adventures of Colonel Light" on
23 August 1901, page 5d,
"The Founder of Adelaide - Selection of the Site of the City" on
9 March 1904, page 5c.
"Colonel Light - A Biographical Sketch" is in the Advertiser,
20 June 1905, page 9d,
"The Light Memorial" on
21 June 1905, page 6c.
A photograph of the statue is in the Chronicle,
24 November 1906, page 28,
1 December 1906, page 29.
Also see Register,
23 October 1907, page 7b,
30 November 1926, page 3f,
2 and 6 December 1926, pages 8f and 7d,
4 and 8 August 1927, pages 10e and 12a for information on "Theberton Cottage".
The latter report reports the unveiling of a plaque following the demolition of the cottage.
"Adventures of Colonel Light - A Hero in Battle" is in the Register, 6 April 1911, page 6d.
"A Girl Pioneer - Spoke With Colonel Light - Strange Story of the Early Days" is in the Advertiser,
17 January 1914, page 6g.
"Lest We Forget - Colonel Light's Old Home" at Thebarton is in The Mail,
20 and 27 October 1917, pages 4f and 2h.
"Pioneer's Great Genius" is in The Mail,
11 October 1919, page 2h.
A photograph of Theberton Hall in England and information on its proposed sale are in the Register,
9 February 1928, pages 7d-10; also see
8 May 1928, page 14i,
18 December 1928, page 23h.
Light BrookParliamentary Paper 24/1874 shows it as a school near Kapunda being conducted in a dwelling-house by Louisa E. Hopkins with 29 enrolled pupils.
Light, Hundred of"Exodus of Farmers from Light" is in the Register,
26 March 1892, page 7e,
2 April 1892, page 11d.
The Hundred of Light School opened in 1903 and became "Freeling North" in 1907.
The name first appeared in connection with Flaxman Special Surveys of 1839 and in a letter written by Colonel Light to Charles Flaxman on 29 July 1839 and copied in the SA Colonist, Vol. 1, no. 14, he said:
- The flat and finely wooded country near the foot of that part of the low range you have been pleased to call "Light's Pass'' is I think, one of the most valuable and eligible I have yet seen.
- The River Gawler which forms the main drain of the northern district and which from its never-failing supply of good water and the available nature of the country on its banks will in time become dotted with villages and hamlets from the Town of Gawler situated on Murray Pass to Light Pass.
The Register of 27 March 1856 at page 2f-h says "why a village [Light Pass] in the plains should be the name of a mountain passage we could not find out...".
The Light Pass school opened in 1917.
"German Language and Teaching" is in the Observer,
27 September 1919, pge 31a.
24 and 26 September 1919, pages 6f and 9c.
On Friday last the Register reported a speech by Mr S. Plush, a returned soldier, alleging that the German language was being taught in the Light's Pass School on Saturdays, and that the German teacher had been retained at his old salary. A meeting of the Light's Pass residents was called... Mr Schwartzkopff, who was teacher at the Light's Pass Lutheran School before the building was taken over by the Education Department, and who conducts the classes complained of, said that nothing but religion was taught... the children being prepared for their confirmation classes... Mr Schulz pointed out that the government allowed these classes, and had no objection to the young being taught religion in the German language... It was resolved to send to the Premier a protest and an assurance that the statement made by Mr Plush was incorrect and misleading...
The opening of a Lutheran chapel is reported in the Register,
12 August 1861, page 3g.
Mr W.H. Scholz's Willow Hospital in Light Pass is described in the Register,
20 April 1885, page 5c; also see
4 May 1903, page 6g;
19 January 1929, page 25e,
An obituary of W.H. Scholz is in the Register,
13 September 1912, page 9a.
Saddington Plush's orchard is described in the Register,
12 October 1903, page 6f,
12 January 1924, page 8a.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Fruit and Vegetables.
"A Progressive Locality" is in the Observer,
20 December 1924, page 8a,
24 January 1925, page 18d.
A photograph of a melon harvest is in the Chronicle,
11 June 1936, page 33.
Light Pass - Obituaries
An obituary of Johann Sporn is in the Register,
24 August 1899, page 5d,
of Rev G.J. Rechner on 23 August 1900, page 5b,
of Jakob Spanagel on 19 October 1928, page 16d.
An obituary of Julius H. Scholz is in the Observer, 29 December 1928, page 49a.
Light, RiverThe Aboriginal name for the river is "Yarralinka" - see Register, 18 July 1907, page 6d.
The laying of the foundation stone of a new chapel "at the head of the Light, 24 miles from the Burra", is reported in the Register, 2 May 1857, page 2f.
A suicide by drowning is reported in the Observer,
30 December 1876, page 12b; also see
20 January 1877, page 7e.
The opening of a bridge at Paddy's Station is reported in the Observer,
2 November 1878, page 22c.
Pollution of the river by woolwashing is reported in the Advertiser,
14 November 1892, page 7f,
20 January 1893, page 7e.
A resident of Fords wrote complaining of the pollution of the River Light by a woolwashing establishment near Kapunda. The water had been made quite black and horses had died from drinking it...
See, for example, under "Hamilton" in Manning's Place Names of South Australia.
Limestone WellThe school is described in the Register of 13 July 1886, page 6f as "a little hut about 12 feet by 20 feet, built and kindly lent by one of the farmers... To attempt longer to squeeze 26 children and the master in this wretched little wigwam is a disgrace to the department."
- We have at present [for a school] but a little hut 12 feet by 20, built and kindly lent by one of the farmers... Though satisfactory reports have been sent in and a visit paid by the school inspector to arrange a site... nothing has been done. The children have hardly room to turn... The Hon. Minister also led the delegation to understand that an unused wooden schoolhouse at Baroota should be shifted to the vicinity... But alas for the scholars of Limestone Well; the ever-watchful and energetic members for Port Germein, hearing of this schoolroom, swooped down upon the Hon. Minister and as usual carried all before them, including the wooden schoolhouse which has since departed Germeinwards... To attempt longer to squeeze the present attendance of 26 children and the master in this wretched little wigwam is a disgrace to the department.
Nineteen kilometres south-west of Port Augusta. The highway to Port Lincoln passes through it. The name was possibly taken from the 'Lincoln Gap Run' taken up by Charles Swinden on 8 July 1857.
Information on the pastoral lease is in the Advertiser,
20 April 1898, page 6f,
16 June 1900, page 5f,
5 January 1924, page 10a.
Lincoln Gap is the agricultural settlement so often referred to as an instance of the folly of attempting to grow wheat outside the rainfall line. Yet there is some excuse for the attempt by men who came away from the settled country in the fact that in 1893 two of the earliest settlers, Messrs Moule and Herde, reaped nearly 20 bushels to the acre... Neither he nor his neighbours have had any crops since, though attempts have been made each year...
Mr Hay was born in Dunfermline, County Fifeshire, Scotland on 12 January 1820, where in the Middle Ages the name was written as dun-fiar-llyn - 'the fortified hill by the crooked stream'. Further, the only stream of any importance in the county is the 'River Lyne', sometimes called the 'Spital Burn'.
Mr Hay's property and vineyard are described in the Chronicle,
28 December 1861, page 4f.
The rebuilding of Hay's house is reported in the Register,
15 January 1867, page 3d.
A Sunday school picnic on the property is reported in the Chronicle,
3 April 1869, page 9d.
Building improvements on "Linden" are reported in the Observer, 18 January 1873, page 10a.
"The Caledonian Gathering" is in the Register,
2 December 1881, page 4g.
"Saint Andrew's Day at Linden" is in the Register,
1 December 1882, page 6b,
1 December 1885, page 6e.
A YMCA picnic at Linden is reported in the Observer,
8 September 1883, page 33b.
Also see Adelaide - Clubs, Societies and Associations - Young Men's Christian Association.
The Adelaide Hunt Club at Linden" is in the Register,
8 September 1884, page 7c.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Fox Hunting.
A farewell to Mr Hay is reported in the Observer,
30 January 1886, page 38a.
A garden party at Linden is described in the Chronicle,
7 December 1889, page 23c.
Mr Hay's obituary is in the Advertiser,
5 February 1898, page 8c,
"A Memoir" on
8 April 1899, page 34.
A sale of his "valuable city property" is reported in the Express,
4 October 1899, page 4d,
5, 12 and 26 February 1898, pages 29d, 16a-25b and 30b.
"The Hay Estate" is in the Register,
22 June 1912, page 16c.
Information on the Linden Park stud is in the Register,
29 October 1919, page 3f.
"Linden Park Jerseys" is in the Register,
10 September 1921, page 12d,
24 February 1922, page 8e,
4 March 1922, page 4a.
Historical information on Mr Hay and "Linden" is in The Mail,
26 May 1928, page 13d.
A photograph of Greenhill Road and houses is in the Chronicle,
17 November 1932, page 32.
Lin(d)fieldSchool examinations at the Linfield (sic) School are reported in the Register, 30 January 1851, page 3e.
A public examination of the scholars in the Linfield School, Barossa, took place... A public tea meeting was held at the close to which all visitors were invited; about 100 persons sat down to tea. The prizes were awarded to the children in the evening... The parents would be glad to see some alteration in the government grant for education in this instance; the number of scholars in the school is 19 which falls short only one of the required number.
A temperance festival is reported in the Register,
19 February 1856, page 3c,
2 April 1858, page 2h.
Lindley, Hundred of
John Lindley, botanist and horticulturalist and associate of Sir Joseph Banks.
A school of this name opened in 1887 and closed circa 1923.
LindsayNear Mount Gambier. The Advertiser of 13 May 1887, page 5c says:
Situated right on the border. This was one of the original crossing places for sheep, and it was at one time surveyed as a township...
A subdivision of section 294, Hundred of Light 24 km north of Gawler, by Alexander Hay (1820-1898) circa 1857, who probably named it after a town in Renfrewshire, Scotland.
A report on the Congregational Church is in the Register,
7 April 1865, page 2d.
A fire at the hotel is reported in the Observer,
9 December 1871, page 3b;
its destruction by fire is reported in the Register,
6 March 1886, page 5d.
Parliamentary Paper 26/1875 shows the school being conducted by Annie Roe with 45 enrolled pupils; it opened in 1867 and closed in 1911.
The opening of a new schoolhouse is reported in the Register,
22 April 1872, page 6e.
A sports day is reported in the Advertiser,
30 December 1875, page 7c.
Information on the bridge is in the Register,
22 June 1891, page 5a; see
2 November 1891 for an account of its opening.
The town is described in the Register, 18 November 1903, page 3h.
Linwood is a small settlement on the main road to Adelaide, almost midway between Tarlee and Templars [sic]. Only a few farmers and a schoolhouse and post office can be seen but the district is productive from an agricultural point of view. Mr P.J. Callier is the schoolmaster and Miss L. Callier, the postmistress...
Biographical details of James Bald are in the Register,
6 March 1912, page 8i,
of P.J. Callier in the Observer,
7 April 1928, page 34d,
29 March 1929, page 5b.
"The Linwood Motor Smash" is in the Chronicle,
28 January 1911, page 41.
"Fatal Quarry Accident" is in The News,
17 May 1937, page 1g.
Linwood - Obituaries
An obituary of Mrs P.J. Callier is in the Register, 5 November 1919, page 6h,
of W. Adolph Rohde on 27 October 1923, page 10g, ,
of P.J. Callier on 17 April 1926, page 9a, ,
of William Fyfe on 18 June 1926, page 10d.
An obituary of William T. Hyde is in the Observer, 27 June 1925, page 11c,
of Mrs Honorah Horgan on 15 October 1927, page 48b.
Thomas Lipson, born in 1783, entered the Royal Navy in 1794. In 1836 he came to South Australia as Naval Officer for the colony and was soon after appointed Collector of Customs and Harbour Master at Port Adelaide.
Captain Lipson's obituary is in the Observer, 31 October 1863, page 1d (supp.),
of Mrs Lipson in the Express, 31 May 1880, page 2b.
A horse race meeting is reported in the Register,
11 January 1878, page 6e. Also see South Australia - Sport - Horse Racing
[Lipson] races took place on Boxing Day. Judge - Mr C.W. Dutton; Stewards - Messrs C. Swaffer, S. Scott, A. Howard, R. Myers, M. Morrison and T. Donlan; Starter - Mr B.W. Wilkinson; Clerk of Course - Mr T. Priest... The settling took place at Host Garrett's in the evening after which dancing was kept up till an early hour next morning...
The laying of the foundation stone of the Anglican Church is reported in the Register,
17 November 1891, page 7d,
21 November 1891, page 33d.
The town is described in the Advertiser,
8 May 1906, page 6f and
a Show in the Chronicle,
24 October 1903, page 34e,
26 March 1904, page 3c (supp.),
15 October 1909, page 4g.
The opening of a new hall (Institute?) is reported in the Register,
21 February 1911, page 3g,
25 February 1911, page 16c.
Photographs of the Institute and its committee are in the Chronicle,
25 February 1911, page 31,
of football teams on
15 and 29 October 1936, pages 32 and 38.
North-west of Pernatty Lagoon. John Munro Litchfield, who held the area under pastoral lease in 1874.
John M. Litchfield's obituary is in the Observer,
8 October 1910, page 43b.
The foundation of the town 3 km west of Mount Barker is possibly unique in that the owners of three sections of land (5008, 5010, 5011) decided to subdivide a portion of their respective properties for which they received land grants in 1849. They were John Smith, surgeon of Blakiston; Thomas Biddles, farmer, Francis Robert Hunt, brewer and Benjamin Gray, brewer, all of Mount Barker. The late John Dunn said that Benjamin Gray hailed from Little Hampton in Sussex, England.
The opening of the Primitive Methodist Chapel is reported in the Register,
7 March 1856, page 3h.
"Silkgrowing at Littlehampton" is in the Observer,
19 December 1874, page 9g. Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Silk
Mrs Fleet, of Littlehampton, has for many years perseveringly laboured in this industry and with some amount of success. At the last three February shows... her silk - tastefully skeined and got up in ornamental cases - has obtained prizes. Greater progress has been retarded by the want of a good supply of leaves on her own premises. Several neighbours who have mulberry trees have placed their leaves at her disposal, but the labour of gathering them from large trees, and the impossibility of supplying them fresh to the worms, have been a continual drawback. At present Mrs Fleet has between ten an twenty thousand worms in the boxes... She also has others hatching...
Its school opened in 1892. See Register,
24 December 1891, page 7c,
26 December 1891, page 9d,
26 May 1900, page 30e.
The town and district are described in the Observer,
7 March 1885, page 8b,
13 July 1892 (supp.), page 1a,
16 July 1892, page 9a,
a bacon factory in the Advertiser on
18 September 1894, page 7a;
bacon curing is discussed on
28 November 1905, page 7h.
Information on brickworks is in the Chronicle,
9 December 1905, page 9a.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Building Stone.
A photograph of a road outside of the town is in the Chronicle,
31 December 1904, page 29.
A picnic race meeting is reported in the Register,
30 March 1926, page 6g.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Horse Racing.
An obituary of John Watts, brickmaker, is in the Register,
22 June 1895, page 5d,
of S.H. Childs in the Observer,
3 November 1906, page 38d,
of Nathaniel Whitehead on 25 October 1933, page 41a,
of John Wigzell on 24 December 1927, page 49c.
The gold/diamond wedding of Mr & Mrs Jesse Wigzell are reported in the Register,
30 June 1906, page 7c,
30 June 1916, page 4h,
8 July 1916, page 28d.
An obituary of John Pearson is in the Register,
10 September 1910, page 12i,
of J.A. Childs on 31 January 1924, page 6i.
Little SwampParliamentary Paper 73/1872 shows "Little Swamp School" being conducted in the Hundred of Lincoln by Thomas Sweetman with 57 enrolled pupils; it opened in 1867 and closed in 1943. A photograph is in the Chronicle, 19 September 1935, page 41.
The swamp is described in the Register, 25 November 1898, page 6e.
- A circular sheet of water, shallow and overgrown, with rushes and thatching grass, is called Litte Swamp. A township is said to exist here, but the only indication of such are a wayside inn and a few scattered farm houses on small holdings. This swamp has many inlets but no outlet except when flooded and then it flows on to the Duck Ponds... There is a flux quarry here. The flux is carted to and shipped from Port Lincoln to the smelters across the water...
"The Little Swamp Tragedy" is in the Chronicle,
20 May 1893, page 7a.
"Suicide of a Publican" in the Register,
29 December 1902, page 6e.