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    Place Names of South Australia - P

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek



    Aboriginal for " rain of little stones".The name was taken from a sheep run pioneered by G.S. Williams in 1854 (lease no. 400).

    General Notes

    The district is described in the Chronicle,
    15 October 1881, page 11g,
    24 October 1881, page 5e.

    A picnic in Mr F.A. Siegert's paddock is reported in the Chronicle,
    12 October 1895, page 28c.

    An obituary of Mrs Elizabeth Aird is in the Register,
    24 January 1902, page 5a,
    of Mrs C.F.A. Hennig on 6 July 1927, page 12b.

    Apart from the Parnaroo School which opened in 1890 and closed in 1930,
    the Parnaroo South School operated from 1895 until 1911.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names



    Aboriginal for 'scrub gum place' or 'eucalyptus tree scrub'.

    General Notes

    Its school opened in 1950.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names



    A town 26 km west of Lameroo and proclaimed on 20 June 1907 is derived from the Aboriginal perki - 'a cave' or 'limestone sink hole' which were often used as burial chambers. The flexed, desiccated or mummified bodies, dried over smoke fires, and decorated with red ochre, were placed on their sides, on ledges; at other times buried in bat guano, often found as accumulations on the floor - the so called petrified men of Parrakie.

    General Notes

    The town is described in the Register,
    11 August 1909, page 9c.

    Its school opened in 1910 and closed in 1964.

    Photographs of children on a farm are in the Chronicle,
    2 July 1931, page 32.

    "Romance of Farming" is in the Chronicle,
    11 May 1933, page 6.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names


    This pastoral property between Hawker and Gordon is described in the Observer, 2 August 1913, page 12a.

    An obituary of William D. Taylor is in the Register, 6 November 1916, page 4g.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Parry, Mount


    West of Leigh Creek, discovered and named by the surveyor, Samuel Parry, in 1858.

    General Notes

    Samuel Parry's exploration journal is reproduced in the Register,
    27 August 1858, page 2e.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Parsons, Hundred of


    Sir John Langdon Parsons, MP (1878-1893) MLC (1901-1903).

    General Notes

    Also see South Australia - Politics.

    "The Banquet to Mr Parsons" is in the Register,
    10 April 1884, pages 4d-6e.

    An obituary of Mr Parsons is in the Express,
    21 August 1903, page 1f.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names



    Aboriginal for 'stopping place'.

    General Notes

    Its school opened in 1917 and closed in 1965;
    Paruna North School opened in 1925 and closed in 1941.

    The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs J.S. Petch is reported in the Register,
    11 July 1925, page 8i.

    Photographs are in the Chronicle,
    3 November 1932, page 34,
    6 February 1936, page 33.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Pascoe, Hundred of


    Thomas Pascoe, MLC (1900-1933). Born at White Hut near Clare in 1859, he became Minister of Agriculture in the Peake-Butler Ministry formed in 1909. 'He was regarded as an authority on agriculture.'

    Point Pascoe - "a point of Venus Bay", was named in 1910 -
    see Advertiser, 21 January 1910, page 6e.

    General Notes

    Also see South Australia - Politics.

    A school of this name opened in 1919 and closed in 1942.

    An obituary of his father, Thomas Pascoe, is in the Observer,
    9 March 1915, page 29a,
    of his mother on 15 October 1921, page 34a;
    biographical details are in The News,
    23 June 1927, page 6d;
    also see Advertiser,
    20 November 1928, page 23d.

    Also see White Hut.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names



    The town 19 km ESE of Kadina was proclaimed on 4 March 1880 and named after General Paske, a brother-in-law of Governor Jervois.

    General Notes

    Information on its water supply is in the Register,
    30 November 1886 and
    21 January 1887, page 7h,
    18 November 1891, page 5d.
    Also see South Australia - Water Conservation.

    The reservoir is discussed in the Advertiser,
    26 September 1887, page 3g and
    "The Price of Beetaloo Water at Paskeville" in the Register on
    20 April 1888, page 3h; also see
    2 May 1894, page 3e.

    "The Paskeville Reservoir" is in the Observer,
    5 May 1894, page 16d.

    A local Show is reported in the Register,
    26 September 1887, page 6f and
    a "field trial" on
    16 December 1895, page 7b,
    25 August 1896, page 6d,
    18 October 1899, page 3d,
    18 March 1905, page 11b,
    29 January 1920, page 6a;
    photographs are in the Observer,
    24 January 1920, page 24,
    22 January 1927, page 33,
    21 November 1935, page 31.
    Also see South Australia - Agricultural, Floricultural & Horticultural Shows .

    A horse race meeting is reported in the Express,
    2 March 1889, page 4d,
    2 March 1901, page 17d,
    27 February 1903, page 2e.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Horse Racing.

    A sports day is reported in the Chronicle,
    7 September 1895, page 12f.

    The death of Thomas Price, the "father of Paskeville", is reported in the Register,
    7 July 1896, page 5d;
    his obituary appears on 8 August 1896, page 5c.

    Biographical details of A. Goodall are in the Register,
    20 February 1911, page 6h,
    of J.P. Pontifex in the Register,
    9 February 1923, page 5g,
    17 February 1923, page 4e.

    The diamond wedding of Mr & Mrs E. Lamming is reported in the Register,
    3 March 1927, page 10d.

    Information on the school is in the Observer,
    30 July 1892, page 30a.
    The opening of a new school is reported in the Chronicle,
    5 September 1903, page 15a.

    The opening of Protestant Hall is reported in the Register,
    11 April 1906, page 6f.

    Photographs of farming scenes are in the Observer,
    16 February 1907, page 29,
    of five generations of the Hastelow family on
    1 February 1908.

    The trial of a stone-gathering machine is reported in the Advertiser,
    18 March 1910, page 9g;
    a photograph is in the Chronicle,
    2 April 1910, page 30.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Farming - Farm Implements.

    "Farming at Paskeville" is in the Register,
    18 December 1916, page 9c.

    The opening of a new post office is reported in the Register,
    30 June 1925, page 10h.

    "Paskeville [to Maitland] Railway - Less Demand Now" is in the Observer,
    30 November 1929, page 4c.
    Also see South Australia - Transport - Railways - Miscellany.

    Paskeville - Obituaries

    An obituary of John Reid is in the Register,
    8 August 1896, page 5c,
    of G. Norris on 29 August 1900, page 4i,
    Observer, 15 August 1896, page 42e,
    of A.A. Young on 27 January 1923, page 35b.

    An obituary of Harriet C. Price is in the Register,
    25 February 1918, page 4h.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Pasley Creek


    Near Mount Fitton in the North Flinders Ranges. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society for London in Volume 18 of 1862 at page xxxv carries an obituary of General Sir C.W. Pasley (c.1781-1861), Royal Engineer and geologist, and as the nomenclator, B.H. Babbage, was also a geologist the name of the creek may be explained by this professional link.

    Also see South Australia - Mining - Coal and Fitton, Mount.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Pat Auld Vat


    North of the Nullarbor Plain, named by R.T. Maurice 'after a friend', who was probably Patrick Auld.

    General Notes

    W.P. Auld's obituary is in the Register, 3 September 1912, page 8c.
    Also see Place Names - Auldana and Place Names - Stuart.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names



    Aboriginal for 'swamp gum trees'. The town 16 km south of Loxton in the Hundred of Pyap was proclaimed as 'Muljara' on 18 November 1915. Its present name was adopted in 1929.

    General Notes

    Its school opened in 1919 and closed in 1955.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names



    A poem entitled 'Aboriginal Nomenclature - By a Native' which appeared in the Register on 11 October 1893 says it means 'swamp of snakes'.(See Place Names - Pata.) In an article on Aboriginal nomenclature in The Mail, 14 May 1921, N.A. Webb says:

    A History of the Patawalonga

    This meandering tidal estuary forming an outlet for the River Sturt was known as the ?River Thames? to the first settlers and, by 1876, the creek was a place of resort for pleasure parties and amateur boatmen and had in itself the elements of an excellent river and ?only required trifling improvements to make it an ornamental and health-promoting stream.? That it had not been done was, perhaps, not due to the expense of such a scheme but to an indifference which, if not totally apathetic, was none the less unproductive of result.

    Above the bar of seaweed near the St George's Rowing Club boatshed, the stream deepened and, for a mile higher up, there was a very fair channel that needed only little expense to transform it into a magnificent sheet of water. The stream, the margin of which was clothed with verdure and studded with mangroves, wound in curves for a long distance and the scenery along the creek amply repaid the lover of nature the trouble of a journey.

    The bank of the river was lined more or less continually with Melaleuca pustulata (frequently called the ?ti-tree?), the bark of which grew in thin paper-like layers somewhat resembling cork, and besides being supposed to make good paper, could be twisted as a cord. Here, also, were great clumps of knotty scirpus doing excellent service in land-making, for it established solid islands in the sand, around and between which material collected. The shrub Aster axilaris, in season, showed its young leaves, which mostly fell off when flowering, and gave place to much smaller ones. The native sarsparilla was conspicuous on account of its pleasing foliage, in one case climbing over a clump of ?prickly pear? trees. Buds, flowers as well as the ripe fruits and seeds were noticed on this elegant plant.

    A Field Naturalist Society's excursion took place on 21 June 1886 and proceeded along the seawall to that much-abused object - the Patawalonga Dam, which is discussed at length hereunder. However, its members spent only a short time in criticising this work, ?the unsavoury odour perceptible near the gates not favouring a lengthy inspection.? Many salsolaceous plants were present including Suseda maritima, which was in flower, with its long succulent leaves and straight stems; Saleola kali, in flower and fruit, the pointed scale-like leaves which required careful handling; Nitraria schoberi, a shrub with grey thick leaves about an inch long and having an oblong and curiously fitted seed and Salicorina Australia, which, having no leaves, was formed of short cylindrical fleshy joints, first green, then red.

    Ever since the formation of a settlement at Glenelg the nuisance of malodorous odours from the creek, which are discussed in another chapter, was vividly before its inhabitants, while from 1876 to 1884 a scheme for its abolition was debated amongst them. A Bill was introduced into the House of Assembly by Mr King in 1876 ?to enable the Corporation of Glenelg to improve the Patawalonga River near the town of Glenelg by the construction of a dam, with floodgates, sluices and other works for the purpose of securing the entrance from the sea to which extended, for over a mile upstream; for the purpose also of retaining the tidal waters for the use of yachts, boats and other vessels as a dock; for the purpose of removing the nuisances caused by the present foul state of the bed of the said river; and for the purpose also of public recreation, amusement, health and enjoyment.? Unfortunately, the Bill was ?ruled out by George Kingston? and the matter remained in abeyance for another seven years.

    At this time the river was obstructed by a bank of seaweed and alluvial deposits about 20 feet deep. Beyond this bank the river was shallow at low water and it was proposed by removing much of this deposit to make the waters near the sea navigable at all times. It was suggested also to extend the sea wall to the mouth of the river and to span the stream with a stone bridge wide enough for carriage traffic, thus throwing the beach road to Semaphore open to vehicles.

    During a parliamentary visit to the site Mr Gray was in attendance when he alleged that if the scheme was undertaken his land would be inundated and depreciated in value. He, of course, was also Chairman of the West Torrens District Council whose jurisdiction extended over the largest portion of the creek and adjoining property. He claimed that the salt water would percolate the banks and damage adjoining land and that the Glenelg Corporation did not have the power to construct a bridge over the creek because the land was under his council's jurisdiction. The forthcoming opposition was such as to 'smother another Bill.?

    Mr W.H. Gray's protest attracted the attention of the resident satirist of the morning press, ?Geoffrey Crabthorn? who, in the guise of ?Miss Gushington?, burst into verse:

    In February 1882, at a meeting convened by Mr J. Lee, the Secretary of the Glenelg Institute, a committee was appointed to make arrangements for a survey of the river and the preparation of plans having the object of adopting a scheme to dam the Patawalonga River. If this was done it was estimated that the water would be thrown back about three miles and, ?as it was broad, and the views to be obtained of it were very pretty?, it was hoped that the residents of the district would enter heartily into the scheme. This and other schemes were proposed, but failed mainly due to further objections from Mr W.H. Gray.

    During 1883 Mr King, MP, the local member, forcibly impressed upon Mr Gray the advantage of a dam and, having obtained his blessing, a Bill was placed before the House of Assembly in October of that year and, finally, the question of improvement to the Patawalonga River, which had remained in limbo for so long, was definitely decided in parliament on 4 December 1884.

    A vigorous opponent of the scheme was James Penn Boucaut, a former premier of South Australia, who resided within a few yards of the river. Having six young sons, each of them owned a sailing craft and he, himself, was a yachtsman. Among other complaints, which are discussed later, he accused the Glenelg Council of not conforming to the private Act of Parliament which said that the weir gates were to be opened to allow craft in and out of the lake when the water was above a prescribed datum. Much correspondence between him, the council and Mayor ended with the accuser threatening legal action; in summary, he characterised the scheme as a dismal failure. Boucaut was at a public meeting held on 11 October 1883 and raised further objections but a motion was carried that ?this meeting heartily approves of the action.?

    The matter was then referred to the Marine Board and, having received no objection from that body, the Corporation of Glenelg sought the approval of ratepayers at a poll. Great excitement was manifested in the usually quiet town on the day of the poll and circulars representing the views of opposing parties were circulated freely. There were many who were opposed to the scheme on the grounds that it would cost more than was estimated; it would be a burden on the ratepayers; that it would only benefit the St Leonard's Ward and the district of West Torrens - the latter of which paid nothing towards it - and that it would not form a harbour of refuge for larger boats, as the bar could not be crossed, whilst a provision should be made for fishermen's boats and small yachts.

    Placards canvassing for and against the proposal were well to the fore for several days preceding the poll and, on one occasion, there was the unwanted spectacle of grotesquely attired men parading the streets and of cabs scurrying to an fro, ?which even an election could hardly cause amongst the ordinarily phlegmatic inhabitants of this seaside resort.?

    The authorising Act had been passed following a report from a civil engineer, Mr C.R. Chamier, when it was decided to build wharfs and a large weir at the mouth of the river and to remove all seaweed behind the weir gates and thus rid the area of the odour of sulphuretted hydrogen caused by the decay of the weed. Mr Chamier estimated the cost of the works to be £12,000 and at a special poll of residents it was decided by a large majority to borrow £9,000 for the purpose.

    His suggestions comprised a sea wall in combination with the one already facing the Colley Reserve, with lock gates; a substantial wharf extending from the seawall to the existing footbridge and a second weir just above the junction of the River Sturt which would prevent the salt water rising above that point.

    The primary idea in damming back the creek was to improve the sanitary condition of the country over which its water spread and at the same time provide for a boat harbour. The contract was let in two parts on 24 March 1885 to Mr J. Wishart and Mr C.S. Baillie and on 29 June of that year the first pile was driven by the Mayor, H.D.Gell.

    The work was proceeded with and after several months the river was declared open for sailing and fishing boats. Unfortunately, an employee opened the weir gates too quickly and much of the seaweed which had been cleared away at a cost of £1,800 was swept back and jammed the gates. This always interfered with the operation of the weir machinery. Despite this setback the scheme was voted to be fairly successful and the council looked forward to more than interest from its outlay in the form of yachting fees and other charges to be levied for use of the river, or lake as it was then called.

    On 17 April 1886 the sluices were opened and there being a high tide the water rushed in rapidly and quickly filled the excavated basin to a depth of nine feet. The gates stood up well to the test and, when opened during low tide, the water inside washed out to sea carrying seaweed and sand which formed the outside banks. However, there was one matter for concern; for when the excavations started it was hoped that enough soil would be obtained from the bed of the river to reclaim the low lying land between Liverpool Terrace and the wharf, but nothing like the quantity required was forthcoming.

    As to possible accruing benefits from the scheme there was not unanimity within the community as evidenced by a letter written by a citizen of Glenelg:

    Further complaints were forthcoming inveighing against the corporation for what was deemed to be an extravagance and suggesting that the expectations entertained by sanguine councilors and the engineer, Mr Chamier, did not stand any chance of being realised. However, throughout the whole of the undertaking the engineer was able to rely upon the hearty support of the corporation, but by June of 1886 this had slackened, not because of any want of loyalty to him but rather because gentlemen, who had had ?much experience in such matters?, pronounced adverse opinions upon the works and because the works themselves seemed not to have answered the expectations formed of them. Therefore, it was easy to understand how the Corporation left its first love and inclined to think with those who lamented the amount of money being expended on the works.

    Most weight was attached to objections raised by Mr. Justice Boucaut and it must have been hard for him to break the silence which his official position as a Supreme Court judge enjoined. Be that as it may, in a letter to the corporation, he devoted himself to an elaborate and destructive criticism of Mr Chamier's latest report. However, although his integrity in this matter was undoubted, an editor of the morning press gently chided him:

    At a meeting of the corporation on 31 May 1886 it as decided ?that the works certified as finished be submitted to arbitration to ascertain whether they are completed in terms of the plans and specifications, and if not, in what particulars.?

    To all the charges, implied and otherwise, Mr Chamier responded suggesting that the indictment of his work and ?remorseless criticisms? were certainly premature:

    On 2 June 1886 Mr Chamier superintended the opening and shutting of the gates. The day was fine and the sea smooth and about 350 people were present. Just prior to the commencement an officious workman entered one of the chain boxes below the capstan and meddled with the chain connected with the south gate. The chain gave way immediately and as a consequence the gate opened to the extent of about a yard from its position.

    At the same time it almost locked by jamming itself over the seaweed on the apron. It was of no use then to test the power of the sluices, as the force of the water went between the gates. Finally, a passage of 25 feet was cleared and only one craft availed itself of the opportunity of entering the harbour. All in all, it was not considered a fair experiment and so a further trial was arranged. Accordingly, on 3 June 1886 another attempt was made and it was ?only partially successful due to one of the pulleys giving way.?

    These events were a catalyst for Mr Boucaut to enter the fray again when he implored his fellow ratepayers to get rid of their ?white elephant?, while a newspaper editor opined that there were many who were prepared to abide events and ?defer their ultimate judgment until all hope of the undertaking proving even a partial success has disappeared.?

    In response to all this uproar and dissension Mr Wigley took up his pen in an effort to stem the adverse criticism:

    To this exposition a disgruntled resident, Mr George Hambidge, of Glenelg responded:

    Finally, Mr Boucaut aired his disapproval of the scheme and pointed out some defects in it:

    A ?lively? meeting of ratepayers took place in the Glenelg Institute on 30 September 1886 when they were told that the town's ?fathers? were considering the imposition of a special rate of one shilling in the pound or offering £12,000 worth of bonds to Glenelg ratepayers and others to enable the contractor, Mr Wishart, to be paid £5,500, for which he had obtained a Supreme Court judgement, and £6,500 owing to the Commercial Bank.

    The chief protagonist at the meeting was Mr Boucaut who queried the legality of the corporation's proposals:

    At this juncture the corporation's legal adviser, Mr Nicholson, agreed with Mr Boucaut. Finally, the meeting adopted Councillor Muirhead's proposal that no further rates should be levied for the present and that the bonds be offered to ratepayers, residents and others.

    In January 1887 the gates were left open for a considerable time when ?all scouring ceased, the whole place got filled up with a deposit of seaweed, the basin became a stinking swamp and threatened to cause an epidemic.? The corporation then ?got the gates properly closed, scoured away the seaweed, put all the appliances in working condition, and were able to open and shut the gates without difficulty at any time.? Then their care seemed to cease for no attempt was made to keep the gates in working order as recommended, while the constant flow of the creek brought a considerable amount of silt to bear against the gates and when a ?freshet? occurred the gates were closed and, owing to the enormous pressure of water and accumulation of silt, it was impossible to open them.

    The matter was resolved in June 1887 when the Sturt River came down in flood and collapsed the dam's gates and all that remained at this site were bare piles and sheeting. There had been a tardiness in opening the gates and by four o?clock in the afternoon the dam was destroyed. The design of the work came into criticism but definite blame could not be fixed at any one's door. However, it was not all a waste of money because the scheme enabled the reclamation of six acres of land adjacent to the dam, that was previously an unsightly waste, and in time it became a valuable municipal property. The aquarium that was to have followed the construction of the dam never eventuated.

    Following this debacle opponents of the scheme were to the fore and one of them, Mr W. Hooper of Byron Street, Glenelg, remonstrated with Mr Wigley:

    Following the loss of the gates the corporation then leveled the sandhills south of the creek and to this Mr Boucaut opined that this irresponsible action:

    The total cost of the scheme was £13,000 and, finally, the corporation ?legally? imposed a special rate of sixpence in the pound which, by 1910, had been reduced to fourpence, in order to defray the interest and provide a sinking fund. The repayment of a ?final set of bonds? amounting to £2,600 fell due on 1 July 1912.

    By 1910 it was a matter of record that the Holdfast Bay Yacht Club's fleet has almost been annihilated by storms four times since 1890, while fishing craft had also suffered severe damage from time to time. Therefore, a petition, largely signed by yachtsmen and owners of fishing craft, was circulated for presentation to the council with a view ?for the construction of an inner harbour at the mouth of the Patawalonga Creek.?


    Register, 1 and 7 August 1876, pp. 5 and 5, 15 February 1882, p. 5 , 12 October 1883, p.6, 17 November 1883, p. 6, 19 April 1886, p. 5, 15 May 1886, p. 6, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 23 June 1886, pp. 2, 4, 7, 4 and 3, 21 and 26 August 1886, pp, 5-7 and 3, 6 and 13 September 1886, pp. 7 and 7, 1 October 1886, p. 6, 25 and 29 June 1887, pp. 6 and 7, 2, 17 and 19 March 1910, pp. 6, 6 and 11, 9 April 1910, p. 12, 7 and 11 January 1911, pp. 15 and 5, 23 May 1914, p. 15, The News, 1 November 1928, p. 1, Chronicle, 12 August 1876, p. 8 , 6 February 1884, p. 23, The Lantern, 12 June 1886, p. 24, Historic Glenelg, Birthplace of SA, pp. 119 and 242-244.

    General Notes

    In an interesting article on Aboriginal nomenclature in The Mail, 14 May 1921, page 3 Mr N.A. Webb says:

    Information on an Aborigines' camp on the banks of the Patawalonga and their ultimate fate is in the Register,
    26 August 1899, page 5a,
    2 September 1899, page 51b.

    In his reminiscences upon the Glenelg district David Shepard recalled that:

    As a result of ministrations of Mr and Mrs Matthews and Miss Cartwright, who had evinced a great interest in the welfare of Aborigines, what was known as the ?Black's Camp? by the younger brigade of the district was disbanded in August 1899. For a considerable time the habitation on the banks of the Patawalonga had provided shelter for about ten Aborigines. The surroundings were anything but pleasant and with only a few bags overhead they had experienced a particularly trying time during the previous cold winter. At first it was thought possible to build a room of some sort, but the owners of the land on which the camp was situated could not be found and therefore the best alternative was to remove them to the mission station at Point McLeay.

    Colley Reserve was the scene of an Aboriginal corroboree on 29 January 1898 and attracted a large course of people who, if they were not delighted with the harmony of the evening produced by means varied and amusing, would have been favourably impressed with the zeal of the performers:

    About 15 Aboriginals, stripped to the waist, essayed the task of demonstrating to the South Australia of the day a tribal war dance. The body of each native was gorgeously painted; plumes bedecked the head, while a plentiful display of leaves and feathers encompassed the knees and hips of some of the performers. Three lubras undertook to supply the music, or song, connected with the war dance and the exact nature of their song baffled description:

    On 31 August 1899 willing hands stoked a fire that disposed of the camp and accumulated rubbish, while the Glenelg contingent, together with others, and numbering eighteen in all, were sent away by train on 1 September to Milang, en route to Point McLeay, ?the district to which they belong?, while a reporter furnished an illuminating paragraph which gives an interesting insight into the inherent lack of Christian charity within the dominant European population:

    The area is described in the Observer,
    7 August 1875, page 12d;
    7 August 1876, page 5f; also see
    12 August 1876, page 8f.

    A proposed dam is discussed in the Register,
    15 February 1882, page 5b.

    Proposed improvements to the area are canvassed in the Register,
    12 October 1883, page 6f,
    17 November 1883, page 6e,
    6 December 1884, page 23b.
    An inspection of same is reported in the Register,
    17 December 1885,
    24, 29 and 30 March 1886, pages 5b, 7f and 7e,
    10, 19 and 22 April 1886, pages 6h, 5b and 5c,
    1, 12 and 15 May 1886, pages 5c and 6e,
    1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 June 1886, pages 6h, 4f, 4h, 7h and 4h,
    21 and 26 August 1886, pages 5b-c-7d and 3d,
    13 September 1886, page 7a,
    The Lantern,
    12 June 1886, page 25 (poem),
    27 March 1886, page 39b,
    23 June 1886, page 3f.

    A field naturalists' excursion to the area is reported in the Register,
    1 and 5 May 1884, pages 7f and 5g.

    Sketches are in the Pictorial Australian in June 1886, pages 88-89.

    A proposed dam is discussed in the Advertiser,
    21 August 1886, page 5g,
    26 August 1886, page 3d; also see
    28 August 1886, page 3h,
    6 September 1886, page 7e,
    1 October 1886, page 6g.

    Its collapse is reported in the Register,
    25 June 1887, page 6c; also see
    29 June 1887, page 7h,
    1 July 1887, page 3h,
    2, 17 and 19 March 1910, pages 6f, 6h and 11d,
    9 April 1910, page 12f,
    16 August 1910, page 8c,
    7 and 11 January 1911, pages 15h and 5d,
    18 February 1911, page 12h,
    23 May 1914, page 15c.

    "Spanning the Patawalonga" is in the Observer,
    29 October 1898, page 27b.

    "Schemes That Failed" is in The News,
    1 November 1928, page 18e.
    Also see Place Names - Glenelg.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Patawarta Hill


    Aboriginal for 'snow country'.

    General Notes

    A photograph of the trigonometrical cairn is in the Observer,
    12 February 1921, page 24.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names


    Information on and a photograph of the bore in the far North-East are in the Chronicle,
    15 June 1912, pages 32-40d.
    Also see South Australia - Northern Lands Development and Allied Matters - Water, Artesian Wells and Springs.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names



    Payneham was named by and after Samuel Payne (c.1803-1847) who was granted section 285, Hundred of Adelaide in 1839.

    General Notes

    An informative letter written by Samuel Payne in 1839 is reproduced in the Register,
    23 January 1926, page 3f.

    An obituary of Arthur Payne, son of Samuel, is in the Register,
    10 October 1896, page 5d,
    17 October 1896, page 14e.
    "Samuel Payne and Acre 47" is in the Register,
    27 February 1924, page 12h.
    An obituary of Edgar S. Payne is in the Register,
    16 December 1925, page 8i.

    A ballot for allotments in the village is reported in the Register,
    9 March 1839, page 5a;
    it is described in
    Parliamentary Paper 91/1889; also see
    9 August 1928, page 10a.

    For the deprivations of a highwayman, Captain Thunderbolt, in the area see Place Names - Parklands.

    The opening of the Primitive Methodist Chapel is reported in the Observer,
    5 February 1848, page 2d.

    Information on Methodism in the village is in the Register,
    25 and 27 October 1858, pages 2h and 2h;
    photographs are in the Observer,
    2 December 1911, page 30.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Wesleyan Church is reported in the Chronicle,
    10 December 1881, page 8c and
    its opening in the Register,
    17 August 1882, page 6e; also see
    22 August 1882, page 5d.
    The laying of the foundation stone of the Methodist Church is reported in the Register,
    9 October 1905, page 6d; also see
    The News,
    29 January 1929, page 6e.

    A history of the Sydenham Road Methodist Church is in the Advertiser,
    11 and 15 May 1923, pages 11g and 12e.
    Information on St Aidan's Church is in The News,
    8 January 1929, page 8c;
    also see Place Names - Marden.

    Horse racing is reported in the Register,
    17 and 19 January 1855, pages 3d and 2h,
    20 January 1855, page 4d.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Horse Racing.

    A meeting of the East Torrens Wine & Distillation Company is reported in the Register,
    2 March 1858, page 3g.

    A ploughing match is reported in the Farm & Garden,
    14 October 1858, page 68.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Ploughing Matches.

    "Garden Robberies" is in the Register,
    29 January 1859, page 2h.
    A poem titled "Ye Gardeners of Payneham" is in The Adelaide Punch,
    18 March 1869, page 73.

    Information on a law case, Wood v Lowe, over rights of way in the village is discussed in the Advertiser,
    9 August 1859, page 2f.

    Examinations at the Battle Lodge School are reported in the Chronicle,
    4 January 1862, page 3c.

    A public meeting about the need for a school appears in the Register,
    8 December 1877, page 5d; also see
    15 May 1880, page 5b,
    26 February 1881, page 5c,
    4 March 1881, page 5b,
    22 May 1880, page 854d,
    26 February 1881, page 363d,
    5 March 1881, page 412b.

    The opening of the Wellington Road School is reported in the Advertiser,
    8 July 1899, page 10a; also see
    28 January 1901, page 7c,
    28 May 1918, page 7g,
    17 July 1909 (photos),
    30 March 1921, page 9e.

    The opening of a kindergarten at the Wellington Road School is reported in the Advertiser,
    23 April 1923, page 11e.
    Also see South Australia - Education - Kindergarten.

    Information on the school's Mothers' Club is in The News,
    8 November 1928, page 9a.

    The reminiscences of Charles Wood are in The News,
    25 August 1923, page 7a,
    "Pioneers' Tales of Payneham" is in The Mail,
    15 August 1936, page 9e.

    "Caution to Wife-Beaters" is in the Register, 30 August 1862, page 2e:

    "Burglary Under Arms" at a house on "the Company's Section" is in the Register,
    21 May 1866, page 2h,
    26 May 1866, page 3d.

    A "disgraceful scene" at the cemetery is reported in the Observer,
    2 June 1866, page 4e.
    A dispute over a proposed extension to the cemetery is reported in the Register,
    22 May 1912, page 6d,
    22 May 1912, page 12a.

    "Division of the District of Payneham" is in the Register,
    17 July 1866, page 3f,
    4 August 1866, page 3h,
    31 October 1866, page 3h,
    9 March 1867, page 2d.

    The results of a cricket match between the local team and Alberton are in the Register,
    26 May 1870, page 3f.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.

    Information on the Institute is in the Observer,
    21 December 1872, page 4c,
    8 March 1873, page 7c,
    17 July 1899, page 3h; also see
    25 January 1910, page 4i;
    The News,
    22 September 1927, page 6d.

    Mr Sewell's Nursery is described in the Chronicle,
    15 May 1880, page 22b,
    29 January 1881, page 22d,
    9 April 1881 (supp.), page 1f,
    22 October 1884, page 5f,
    20 May 1899, page 21a and
    a four-paged supplement and Mr Wicks's in the Chronicle,
    22 June 1895, page 13g; also see
    Pictorial Australian in
    May 1881, page 77 (sketch) and
    10 May 1902, page 42 (includes photos).
    Henry Sewell's obituary is in the Register,
    12 August 1926, page 3f.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Wesleyan Church is reported in the Chronicle,
    10 December 1881, page 8c and
    its opening in the Register,
    17 August 1882, page 6e; also see
    22 August 1882, page 5d.
    The laying of the foundation stone of the Methodist Church is reported in the Register,
    9 October 1905, page 6d; also see
    The News,
    29 January 1929, page 6e.

    A dispute over four acres of "Reserve Land" is reported in the Register,
    12 April 1883, page 5b; also see
    30 January 1884, page 5c.

    The opening of a tramway is reported in the Register,
    20 December 1883, page 4g; also see
    25 December 1884, page 6g.
    An account of a tram accident is in the Register,
    17 January 1901, page 3d.
    "Payneham Tramway" is in the Register,
    6 April 1907, page 8i.
    The opening of the electric tramway is reported in the Register,
    10 May 1909, page 7f; also see
    15 May 1909, page 4g.
    Photographs are in the Chronicle,
    15 May 1909, page 29; also see
    10 May 1909, page 3h.
    Also see South Australia - Transport - Tramways.

    Information on a fire brigade is in the Register,
    24 March 1884, page 5d,
    14 and 26 March 1884, pages 2c and 5e.
    A photograph of a fire appliance is in the Chronicle,
    30 December 1911, page 27.
    Also see Adelaide - Fires and the Fire Brigade.

    Information on a football team is in the Express,
    16 March 1889, page 4d.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Football.

    Local flooding is described in the Register,
    18 April 1889, page 6a,
    20 April 1889, page 9b.
    Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - Floods.

    A consecration service is reported in the Express,
    25 June 1884, page 6d.

    A digging match is reported in the Chronicle,
    21 September 1889, page 21f,
    4 July 1891, page 22f,
    2 October 1891, page 4b.

    Information on a draughts club is in the Express,
    7 September 1891, page 4c.

    An objection to "tin-kettling" by larrikins is expressed in the Register,
    1 July 1892, page 6c.
    Also see under Adelaide - Larrikinism.

    Cottage homes are described in the Register,
    21 and 22 March 1893, pages 5b and 7g,
    25 March 1893, page 37e.
    Also see Adelaide - Housing, Architecture and Ancillary Matters - Cottage Homes.

    "Fell Down a Well" is in the Observer,
    22 and 29 September 1894, pages 31c and 15c.

    An obituary of Mrs Hannah Bates is in the Register,
    22 October 1895, page 5d,
    of W. Wear on 27 May 1897, page 5b,
    of James Reynolds on 17 November 1903, page 5a,
    of Charles Keir on 9 December 1903, page 4h.

    A photograph of James Marshall's home, Darroch, is in The Critic,
    18 August 1900, page 23.

    Mr G.F. Ind's garden is described in the Register,
    6 June 1903, page 8g,
    9 May 1906, page 8c.

    A dispute over a proposed extension to the cemetery is reported in the Advertiser,
    22 May 1912, page 12a.

    Biographical details of Mrs Sarah W. Barty are in the Register,
    16 February 1907, page 5c,
    of Robert Taylor on 14 October 1911, page 12h.

    Biographical details of Henry Rosewarne are in the Register,
    10 January 1914, page 9c, 2 April 1915, page 10d.

    Biographical details of David Wilson are in the Register,
    6 February 1915, page 8h,
    of J. Giles on 14 April 1916, page 5b,
    of John Giles on 26 April 1918, page 6f.

    Information on the Payneham Coo-ee Club is in the Register,
    25 October 1907, page 7g.
    "Coo-ee Club Burnt Out" is in the Register,
    7 February 1914, page 15c - it contains information on an early church.

    An Arbor Day is in the Register,
    27 June 1908, page 4e.
    Also see South Australia - Education - Arbor Days.

    "Electric Light for Payneham" is in the Register,
    20 December 1910, page 6e.
    Information on street lighting is in the Register,
    7 April 1914, page 8c.
    Also see Adelaide - Lighting the City and Homes.

    "An Old-Young Orchard [Cecil Fisher's]" is in the Register,
    21 February 1912, page 7a.

    "Progressive Payneham" is in the Register,
    11 July 1912, page 6e.

    Information on H. Wicks's nursery is in the Register,
    9 February 1914, page 10a.

    A photograph of members of a cricket team is in The Critic,
    3 March 1915, page 11.

    A photograph of footrace competitors is in the Observer,
    27 February 1915, page 28.

    The reminiscences of Henry Rosewarne and a photograph of him and his descendants are in the Observer,
    10 April 1915, pages 27-50a.

    "Patriotic Payneham" is in the Express,
    14 February 1916, page 4f.

    "A Man Shot Dead" is in the Express,
    6 March 1916, page 4e.

    Photographs of a carnival are in The Critic,
    16 February 1916, page 14.

    A Payneham Village Fair is reported in the Register,
    5 March 1917, page 9a.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    10 March 1917, page 25,
    for those of a patriotic carnival see
    9 March 1918, page 24.

    The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs N.P. Myers is reported in the Register,
    5 April 1919, page 9a.

    A report on the destruction of a jam factory by fire is reported in the Express,
    27 January 1920, page 1g,
    of Elliott's Cycle and Motor factory in the Observer,
    10 February 1923, page 14e.
    Also see Adelaide - Factories and Mills.

    "Foxes at Payneham" is in the Register,
    1 June 1926, page 12d, Also see South Australia - Flora and Fauna - Foxes
    "Back to Payneham" on
    27 February 1928, page 7e;
    photographs are in the Observer,
    3 March 1928, page 38.

    Photographs of cycling events on the oval are in the Observer,
    26 January 1924, page 32,
    2 January 1926, page 32,
    2 and 9 January 1936, pages 28 and 31,
    of packing apples on
    23 February 1933, page 32.

    Biographical details of Thomas James are in the Register,
    21 August 1925, page 8h,
    of Oswald Higginbotham in the Observer, 21 July 1928, page 34c.

    Information on the old folks' home of Resthaven is in The News,
    25 February 1936, page 7c.

    Payneham - Obituary

    An obituary of John Cook is in the Register, 19 October 1891, page 5a,
    of Edward Bowels on 7 April 1892, page 5b,
    of John Magor on 15 September 1894, page 6g, Observer, 24 October 1891, page 30c,
    of William Temby on 11 March 1899, page 12b,
    of James Reynolds on 21 November 1900, page 34b.

    An obituary of Rev W.T. Penrose is in the Register, 5 June 1905, page 6g,
    of Mrs Jane Bakewell on 30 June 1905, page 5d,
    of Richard R. Heinemann on 16 April 1906, page 5a.

    An obituary of John M. Stacy is in the Observer, 27 January 1906, page 38a,
    of Charles James, commercial traveller, on 7 April 1906, page 37d,
    of Richard R. Heinamann on 21 April 1906, page 38c,
    of John Burich, hotelier, on 9 November 1907, page 23d,
    of T. McRostie on 4 June 1910, page 40a,
    of Charles Pitt, orchardist, on 9 September 1911, page 34b (also see underPlace Names - Marden),
    of G.J. I'Anson on 14 June 1913, page 41a,
    of Ebenezer Pitt on 4 October 1913, page 41b.

    An obituary of Mrs Jonah Hobbs is in the Register, 22 May 1908, page 7a,
    of T. McRostie on 27 May 1910, page 4g,
    of J.M.J. Belcher on 4 October 1910, page 4h,
    of Mrs Elizabeth Allen on 28 October 1910, page 7a.

    An obituary of Mrs Charlotte A. Gray is in the Register, 30 March 1911, page 4h,
    of Charles Pitt on 4 September 1911, page 6h,
    of Mrs Louisa Taylor on 1 August 1913, page 6g,
    of A.E. Humble, chemist, on 18 June 1914, page 8a,
    of Thomas Rhodes on 12 January 1916, page 4g,
    of J.B. Champion on 22 and 25 November 1916, pages 6h and 5e.

    An obituary of Mrs C.J.S. West is in the Observer, 8 April 1916, page 32a,
    of Mrs W. Wear on 17 August 1918, page 19d,
    of David Wilson on 27 March 1920, page 12d,
    of N.P. Meyers on 22 January 1921, page 34b,
    of Mrs George Steer on 5 May 1923, page 35d,
    of W. Darby on 6 September 1924, page 39b,
    of W.J. Davey on 1 May 1926, page 22c,
    of Thomas James on 27 November 1926, page 11a,
    of Charles Barons on 4 December 1926, page 43c,
    of T.W. Chalk on 13 August 1927, page 28a,
    of William Griggs on 18 February 1928, page 49a.

    An obituary of Mrs W. Wear is in the Register, 15 August 1918, page 6g,
    of John W. Taplin on 13 January 1920, page 4h,
    of David Wilson on 19 March 1920, page 6h,
    of Robert Taylor on 26 August 1920, page 7d,
    of Nathan P. Myers on 18 January 1921, page 8e,
    of George Steer on 1 May 1923, page 11f,
    of Rev John Murray and R.F. Mount on 9 July 1925, page 8h,
    of Edward Naughton on 21 October 1925, page 8h.

    An obituary of William J. Davey is in the Register, 26 April 1926, page 6g,
    of W.G.L. Dix on 25 June 1926, page 11i,
    of Dr Charles T. Abbott on 15 October 1926, page 10a,
    of Thomas James on 22 November 1926, page 9g,
    of Charles Barons on 26 November 1926, page 10h,
    of Thomas W. Chalk on 10 August 1927, page 11d.

    An obituary of William Griggs is in the Register, 11 February 1928, page 5e.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Peach(e)y Belt


    Near Salisbury, is sometimes, albeit incorrectly, called Peachey Belt. The survey of the area was made in 1849 and the plan is headed 'Survey of Sections in the Peachy Belt', while the diagram shows the area to be almost completely covered with trees which were, no doubt, the native peach (quandong).

    General Notes

    A "Mr Peachey, land agent" is mentioned in the Southern Australian,
    15 March 1844, page 2d.

    A proposed chapel is discussed in the Register,
    9 February 1853, page 3d.
    The opening of a Bible Christian Chapel is reported in the Register,
    7 April 1855, page 3f,
    7 April 1855, page 5h;
    15 September 1865, page 3f.

    Parliamentary Paper 18/1861 shows its school of 44 pupils being conducted by James Talbot;
    it opened in 1856 and closed in 1873.

    An obituary of Michael Hewitt is in the Register,
    3 May 1878, page 5f,
    of Mrs Edward Hall on 3 January 1901, page 4i.

    An obituary of Arthur Peachey, surveyor, is in the Observer,
    1 July 1916, page 21b.

    Examinations are reported in the Register,
    25 October 1858, page 2h; also see
    10 November 1859, page 3e;
    7 March 1863, page 2f (supp.).

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Peake, Hundred of


    Archibald Henry Peake, MP (1897-1920).

    General Notes

    Also see South Australia - Politics.

    A school of this name opened in 1909 and closed in 1964.

    Biographical details of Mr Peake are in the Express,
    1 August 1897, page 5d,
    Observer, 19 October 1901, page 33d,
    The Herald, 17 May 1902, page 1a,
    11 December 1909, page 8d;
    an outline of his career is in the Register,
    11 February 1913, page 6f and
    his obituary on 7 April 1920, pages 6c-7a.
    "The Peake Memorial" is discussed on 2 and 3 October 1923, pages 6d-9a and 11c;
    also see Observer, 6 October 1923, page 39a.

    A cartoon on Mr Peake is in The Critic,
    12 October 1904, page 17.
    An obituary of H.T. Peake is in the Observer,
    26 March 1921, page 34a.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Peake Creek


    Near Lake Eyre North, discovered by John McD. Stuart on 6 June 1859. E.J. Peake, MP (1857-1859) SM, a son-in-law to John Chambers, one of Stuart's patrons.

    General Notes

    "The Peake Goldfield" is in the Observer,
    13 November 1886, page 14a.
    Also see South Australia - Mining - Gold.

    "A Trip to the Peake" in the Far North is in the Chronicle,
    28 April 1888, page 13c,
    "Sale of Peake Run" in the Express,
    6 September 1901, page 2h.
    A photograph of wool carting on the station is in the Observer,
    11 July 1925, page 34.

    The town and district are described in the Register,
    11 August 1909, page 9c,
    22 October 1909, page 8d; also see
    18 December 1912, page 7a.

    A sports day is reported in the Chronicle,
    1 January 1910, page 16d.

    A photograph of members of the district council is in the Chronicle,
    18 October 1913, page 32,
    of a football team on
    14 November 1935, page 35.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Pearce, Point

    See Place Names - Yorke Peninsula - Aborigines in respect of preliminary information in respect of the Aboriginal mission.


    On Yorke Peninsula 18 km south of Maitland was named by Matthew Flinders on 7 March 1802 after an Admiralty Board member.

    General Notes

    The Observer of 14 March 1874 at page 17c refers to the Aboriginal mission as "Boorkooyanna" - boorkoo, "small shrub" and yanna, "plain".

    An obituary of Rev. W. Kuhn, "one of the founders of Point Pearce", is in the Observer,
    14 June 1913, page 41b.

    The Boorkooyanna Native Mission is described in the Register,
    9 March 1874, page 6c.
    An Aboriginal "Royal Wedding" at Boorkooyanna is described in the Register,
    31 December 1874, page 7b and
    Observer of
    2 January 1875, page 12c.

    A report on the "Native School" is in the Register,
    8 September 1868, page 3e; also see
    2 November 1868, page 2g,
    23 March 1869, pages 2d and 3h,
    1 June 1869, page 2h,
    16 December 1869, page 2f - "One adult scholar has been baptised, expressing an intelligent trust in Christ as his Saviour..."

    Also see Register,
    16 April 1873, page 5c,
    5 September 1874, page 5e,
    22 January 1876, page 6a,
    6 May 1876, page 5f,
    19 August 1876, page 4f,
    Register ,
    29 April 1879, page 4g,
    6 and 7 May 1879, pages 6f and 5g,
    5 June 1879, page 7b.

    A lengthy description of the mission is in the Advertiser,
    16 April 1880, page 6c.

    Also see Register,
    27 May 1882, page 5b,
    8 April 1885, page 7d,
    28 November 1893, page 7e,
    21 February 1894, page 3c,
    28 August 1903, page 4g,
    5 September 1903, page 34b,
    2 May 1904, page 3b,
    28 January 1905, page 10f,
    24 October 1906, page 6h,
    15 November 1909, page 7c,
    18 June 1913, page 7a,
    1 March 1916, page 4f,
    3 November 1916, page 4f,
    21 June 1924, page 13e,
    6 July 1926, page 14,
    17 January 1928, page 14f,
    9 February 1928, page 16b.

    Photographs of the Narrunngga built at the mission by Mr W. Burgoyne are in the Chronicle,
    10 October 1903, page 43; also see
    22 June 1907, page 30,
    11 September 1915, page 29.

    "An Old Identity Dead" is in the Chronicle,
    10 May 1924, page 56a.

    Records in the Department of Education say the school was opened in 1881.

    Biographical details of Francis Garrett are in the Register,
    5 July 1923, page 6f.

    A photograph of a football team is in the Observer,
    25 October 1924, page 34,
    of native shearers in the Chronicle,
    28 December 1933, page 33.

    "Grave Problem at Point Pearce" is in the Advertiser,
    11 February 1933, page 15h; also see
    14 March 1933, page 12d,
    18 January 1934, page 22c.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Pearson Isles


    In the Investigator Group at the eastern end of the Great Australian Bight, named by Matthew Flinders on 13 February 1802; today they are a seal and wallaby sanctuary. Pearson was the maiden name of the mother of Lieut. Fowler, who was Flinders' brother-in-law.

    General Notes

    They are described in the Register,
    15 February 1911, page 8d.

    The release of wallabies on an island is reported on
    27 May 1913, page 6d and
    the killing of seals on
    25 January 1923, page 6d.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    27 January 1923, page 29.
    Also see South Australia - Flora and Fauna - Birds.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek
    Place Names

    Pedler Creek


    In the Hundred of Willunga, named after the Pedler or Pedlar family, who settled in the district after arriving in the Sir Charles Forbes in 1839. The ship's manifest shows the name 'Pedlar', but several official documents in the 1840s and 1850s show both 'Pedler' and 'Pedlar'.

    General Notes

    The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs William Pedler is reported in the Register,
    3 October 1907, page 4h;
    his obituary is in the Observer,
    30 January 1909, page 38d.

    Historical information is in the Chronicle,
    23 January 1936, page 49.

    Parnaroo - Pedler Creek