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Manning Index of South Australian History
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    South Australia - Immigration

  • Migrants
  • Asian
  • Cornish
  • German
  • Irish
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    Migrants

    Cornish

    "Immigration from Cornwall" is in the Register,
    7 May 1866, page 2b,
    Observer,
    12 May 1866, page 6c.
    "An Appeal to the Cornish in SA" is in the Express,
    26 April 1879, page 3e,
    5 May 1879, page 2e,
    12 July 1879, page 2b,
    6 September 1879, page 2c.

    A proposed association is discussed in the Express,
    15 and 22 February 1890, pages 2d and 3c.
    "What Cornishmen Have Done" is in the Register,
    21 October 1901, page 4f.
    A photograph of an immigrant Cornish family is in the Observer,
    1 March 1924, page 33.

    "Cornishmen Brought Prosperity to South Australia" is in the Advertiser,
    23 May 1936, page 11g.

    Migrants - Choose again

    Migrants

    German

    Also see:
    Place Names - Hahndorf
    Place Names - Klemzig
    South Australia - World War I - Germans in Australia
    Adelaide - Miscellany and Obituaries.
  • Our German Legacy

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

      The German [place] names which we have so indiscriminately destroyed were, as Pastor Brauer has said, 'statues of liberty proclaiming and perpetuating the glory of Britain, because they proclaimed to future generations and ages that these pioneers had been accorded in a British province the liberty denied them in the country of their birth.' We made a mistake when we decreed the ruthless destruction of such memorials...
      (Advertiser, 10 February 1928, page 12)

    Introduction

    The King of Prussia long contemplated the union of the Lutheran and reformed churches in his dominions and, with this view, he caused their Liturgies to be compared and collated, in order to form a ritual in which both could unite. In 1830, he commanded his new Liturgy to be received in every congregation in his kingdom. Many conscientious individuals, however, entertained insurmountable objections against the new form of worship, 'because of the wide gate it opened to neology and infidelity of various kinds', and because its use 'necessarily involved the giving up of those acknowledged formulas which had been in use in the Lutheran church for upwards of three centuries, and which the members of that church had been taught from their earliest years to regard with veneration.' The opponents of the new Liturgy included among them professors of eminence in universities and a considerable number of the Lutheran clergy.

    When they would not consent to lay aside the orthodox forms to which they had been accustomed, nor to depart from the doctrines of their forefathers, the consequence was that they were suspended from the exercise of their sacred functions. Many were punished by imprisonment and those of the laity, who assembled to hear their pastor preach, were fined heavily. The churches, being deprived of their pastors, the rite of baptism could no longer be duly administered and, when from a feeling of duty and necessity, the father of the family performed it, he was likewise sent to prison.

    Petitions and remonstrances were made to the government by these poor people but no redress could be obtained, nor any alleviation of the rigorous measures adopted against them. The king might rule their comings and goings, but their souls were sacrosanct and they rebelled against the new liturgy he sought to impose. Persecution followed, swift and harsh and, to escape these, children of Israel sought a new promised land where they might worship unfettered in the faith of their fathers. At length, however, in 1835 permission was given them to leave the country. Accordingly, the Reverend Augustus Kavel was deputed by several congregations of Lutheran Silesians to go to England to make arrangements for their emigration.

    Reverend Kavel was their Moses and their pillar of light, George Fife Angas, of whom Kavel had heard through a Hamburg merchant. Actuated in part by Christian charity, in part by prospect of gain for the province in which he was deeply involved, Angas strained his resources and advanced 4,000 for passage money for Kavel and his flock, to be repaid in the colony when able, with the usual interest should he require it.

    The original recusants numbered 150, but when the path was opened hundreds pressed forward. So, in 1838, the Prince George sailed from Plymouth, the departing place of the other Pilgrim Fathers, with about 200 refugees on board. Angas went on board to wish them Godspeed and scores kissed his hands, with tears of gratitude in their eyes. Seventeen persons, for whom the Prince George could not afford accommodation, arrived a little later in the Bengalee and the third vessel to sail was the Zebra, with 197 Lutheran immigrants, followed in succeeding months with hundreds more.

    The Germans in South Australia

      Wherever they cast their lot they bestowed on their new home a name which suggested German associations. Mr Angas was full of praise for the achievements of these people in promoting the welfare of the land of their adoption, and his sentiments were those of most people in the halcyon days. But war destroys sentiment...
      (Register, 12 June 1916, page 4.)

    Down near the gum-shaded banks of the River Torrens, close to Felixstow Road, may be found age-stained headstones and the ruins of solidly built, shingle-roofed cottages. Beneath the stones the forefathers of a village sleep; the ruins are a memorial of the forgotten hamlet of Klemzig, symbol of an area which stood for much in the development of the agricultural lands of the colony.

    The colony has known many infiltrations of the foreign element, but none can compare with its first experiment in engrafting on to a stock predominantly British in character and outlook, a new life represented by the migration of the Prussians during the first decade of settlement.

    From the material aspect the strangers moulded profoundly the fortune of the land of their adoption. More subtly, the infusion of new customs and practices, new aspirations and a new religion, had advantages which should be their own warrant for, isolated as we were, there was a danger of parochialism and loss of contact with a wider world beyond, had we but our fathers' codes and institutions. Against such insulation the foreign element was a salutary check.

    Klemzig's associations are rich in the courage which braved unknown dangers for conscience sake, and in the benevolence which prompted noble deeds. They lie deep in the religious soil of Prussia, that nurtured a zeal among peasants and townsfolk and which even the fires of persecution could not destroy.

    Their welcome was not enthusiastic, for memory was still fresh of the unsatisfactory behaviour of a handful of Germans in the original settlement; but opinion soon changed. Charles Flaxman, Angas's attorney, with pecuniary interests alert, settled the first band of immigrants on his employer's land lying near the Torrens, leasing them blocks, which had cost 12 shillings an acre, at five shillings a year and advancing 1,200 for seed and stock at 15 per cent.

    There they built the village of Klemzig, its naming pregnant with nostalgia for their native parish. Their first thought was a church and a home for their pastor, then came humble cottages built at right angles to the street and shaded by wide, overhanging eaves; indeed, an air of serenity pervaded the spot.

    'Only four or five months have elapsed since the hands of man began to efface the features of the wilderness', said a visitor, 'yet nearly 30 houses have been erected.. All are neat and comfortable and mostly built of pise or unburned bricks which have been hardened by the sun. The more humble are of brushwood and thatch.'

    While other farm labourers idled and grumbled, life passed tranquilly in this Arcadia. From daylight until dark, the men worked earnestly at reaping the corn and tilling the plots. When the kine came home the watering of gardens began, with water drawn from the river. Never were they idle.

    At any hour women might be seen in their foreign dress trudging back and forth to town with enormous bundles of clothes on their shoulders, for they were the chief laundresses of the town, and seemed as strong and muscular as the men. On Sundays, and often during the week, the bell in the chapel called them to worship - men, women and children.

    Kavel, if not Moses, the law-giver, was mediator of this colonial flock, for the veneration given him made his authority as strong as the law. With a skill of a political economist, he cut through the land jobbing centralisation and agricultural stultification, which threatened to bring ruin the South Australia, and saw the prime cause of the evil to be lack of capital. To Angas and the South Australian Company he furnished valuable reports.

    Soon he had another parish in the hills. Captain Hahn, of the Zebra, was the guide and friend of the refugees he transported across the seas. The captain went and inspected land owned by Mr F.H. Dutton and partners within a special survey in the Mount Lofty Ranges and was enchanted with its beauty and fertility and was asked by the owner what he thought of it.

    'It seems to me as if Nature has lavished her choicest gifts on South Australia', the captain replied. Then, turning to the wealthy owners he said, 'Now I ask you, do you think it is the will of God that this beautiful land, on which so many hundred individuals could find an ample maintenance, should be destined for merely for grazing cattle? In such a boundless tract of land you would scarcely miss it, were you to grant my emigrants from 50 to 100 acres in some corner where they might raise a settlement.' This was on 25 January 1839. So, 150 acres were appropriated to their use and the people invited to come up, bag and baggage.

    Having disembarked at Port Misery, the migrants commenced their journey, carrying their belongings, or dragging them along in small, primitive handcarts. Even the first and easiest stage of their journey - from the port to Adelaide - was beset with difficulties and many of them became footsore travelling over the uneven country. They discovered Adelaide to be a collection of huts and tents and many of the houses were without fireplaces.

    Then began a weary journey through the still imperfectly known and sparsely settled districts of the hills, homes of the dubious Tiersman and supposedly treacherous natives. After a few days of recuperation at the foothills the ascent of the spurs between Beaumont and Glen Osmond began. Carrying part of their burden and pulling the other on handcarts, they looked down rapturously on the glorious panorama when the crest was gained. Joy was unalloyed when they threaded fertile valleys and dales of sylvan loveliness perfumed with the scent of aromatic gums and shrubs and settled at 'Bukatilla', the native 'swimming place', to which they gave their captain's name.

    After a thanksgiving service the new settlers commenced the erection of dwellings and clearing the land; but they soon discovered that the Aborigines did not altogether welcome their arrival. On the contrary, some of them showed considerable resentment as they regarded the coming of the new settlers as an unwarranted intrusion on their own sacred domain.

    Nor can we blame them for their attitude if we remember that the site on which Hahndorf stands was one of their favourite meeting places. However, the new arrivals were able to assimilate the Aborigines' point of view and showed them every kindness possible. Consequently, no serious collision or act of hostility ever occurred.

    Until their first crops were harvested the newcomers suffered considerably from hunger and found it necessary to subsist on kangaroo soup and stew and to prepare dishes from the flesh of parrots and opossums, which they called 'wild cats', their vegetable dietary consisting of native herbs and roots which, though edible and wholesome, had a bitter taste.

    A few of them, following the example of the Aborigines, tried baked snake and lizard and declared it to be an agreeable dish to the palate. As a vegetable, the pickled leaves of a plant called 'pig face' were also used. But it was not long before they grew their own vegetables and even helped to supply the market in the city.

    The carrying of vegetables and dairy produce to Adelaide in those days, across the hills along a hard and rugged track, was not only a test of strength and endurance, but also of courage and bravery, as bush rangers in the hills occasionally attacked and robbed travellers. But these matrons and maidens seemed to know no fear and were often complimented by the people of Adelaide.

    One of them reminisced with me:

      In the winter I walked in one day and out the next; but in the summertime we would start at midnight and get home next evening. Winter nights in the city were spent with kindly folks, he husband a carpenter and cabinet maker. A couple of rugs on the shavings under a bench made a fine bed. At break of day up with my basket again, with tea, sugar, soap and candles. I stepped out blithely and thought nothing of it at 15 years of age.

    She informed me that when the German lassies left Hahndorf for Adelaide at midnight they would be near the city in the early morning. Beside a running stream they were accustomed to eat their breakfast, wash their faces and hands in the stream, comb their hair and prepare for their entry into Adelaide using a pool of water as a mirror.

    In describing the Aborigines of the period at Hahndorf she said:

      The black were great, stalwart fellows, well built and well nourished, quite a contrast to the puny, spindly natives in the north-west. On one occasion a whole tribe of them came and had a litter of boughs, upon which lay a lubra, very ill. They placed her carefully in the shade and some of the white women brought milk and other suitable food and gave her some attention. After several days they moved on, first begging a few sheaves of straw to make a soft bed for the sick lubra.

      On another occasion a number of black fellows came along just as mother had taken off a large boiler of boiled wheat. They scooped it out with their hands and were laughing impudently and enjoying the feast. Mother, however, went to a neighbour who was a shoemaker and leather worker. He had a fine whip and out he sallied using it with right good will. There was no ceremony about their departure. The stinging lash on their backs and legs was no joke and they soon vanished, no doubt finding it safer to rob the potato patches by night which they sometimes did.

    Countrymen followed them out and at the end of 1838 the Prussians numbered 500, a tenth of the population. In 1841 Pastor Fritschke brought out a flock and founded Lobethal in the beautiful 'Valley of Praise'. The Silesians made their mark. Though they maintained strenuously the identity of their congregations, they met in front of Government House on the Queen's birthday of 1839 as an act of grace and swore allegiance to the British Crown.

    Despite their struggle and the diminution of their capital, there were few repudiations of the debt due to Angas. Many made it their first charge and the curious custom arose of a husband, instead of receiving a dowry with his wife, making himself responsible for her 'ship's debt'. Women shore sheep - an observer was pleased to see 'how tenderly the sheep were handled' - and hitched themselves to the plough.

    Strict abstemiousness helped them to independence. Each family had a plot of land on lease, on which they cultivated vegetables, wheat, maize and potatoes. Almost every family had also a few cows and thus the villagers enjoyed a happy, independent life and by their sobriety and general exemplary conduct, held out a good example to all other colonists.

    During the first year or two the German settlers dug up the ground with forks and spades and sowed as much barley and wheat as they could, the seed being all hand sown. A forked branch of a tree, with wooden teeth, was dragged over the land to harrow the seed into the soil, while two or more persons pulled the makeshift instrument by hand. Later on George Fife Angas's representatives provided bullocks from its herds. The life of these pioneers was simple and laborious in the extreme. Clinging to their religious freedom they were very devout and regular attendants at church.

    Year by year the flow of Prussians and Silesians continued, reaching a peak of more than a thousand in 1849, 1850, 1854 and 1855, while the total immigration between 1846 and 1860 exceeded 10,000.

    Offshoots of Kavel's and Fritschke's flocks migrated to the rich Barossa country when Flaxman made his 'unauthorised purchase of seven special surveys, which plunged his employer into grievous embarrassment.' There they were induced to pay, on terms, ten pounds an acre which had been taken up at one pound per acre. Despite this handicap, they prospered and the rich vineyards at Nuriootpa, Angaston and Tanunda came into being.

    An early resident recalled her pioneering days near Angaston: 'I was well inured to hard work, so that it was no hardship when I got married to help my husband with his team of four bullocks. After marriage came the task of furnishing the home. Money was scarce but the young couple were equal to the occasion. She said that all the furniture was home-made out of native wood; rough, but strong and durable. Some of it could not be worn out.

    'The camp oven was a special friend, while the fires and fireplaces were things to be remembered. A fireplace 12 feet wide, in which a bullock could be roasted, with plenty of wood close at hand, made winter nights cosy. 'My husband loved good fires', she said. 'He would bring in huge logs, as much as he could lift, and they burned gloriously.

    'Through hard times and bitter drought and sickness, when poverty knocked at the door with relentless knuckles, two things we never lacked - wood to warm us and bread, however little, to eat. Black coffee and dry bread we had sometimes for months, but still we had enough - if only enough. There was no problem how to appear other than we were. In simple friendliness we dwelt among our neighbours. The helping hand was shown on all sides, as we were all poor together.'

    The Prussian infiltration gave South Australia more than their excellence in agriculture, for it left its mark on our nomenclature, bestowed a heritage of musical appreciation evident in the Liedertafel and the string orchestra of Adelaide, and passed down to following generations a solidity of character and thoroughness of endeavour which have borne fruit in scientific and medical achievement.

    General Notes

    "Germans in SA - A Page of Early History" is in the Register,
    26 October 1909, page 7c,
    "Our Early German Settlements" on
    17 January 1916, page 7a.

    "First German Settlement" is in the Observer,
    11 February 1928, page 22d,
    "Lutheran Pioneers" on
    25 February 1928, page 17a.

    An essay on early German immigration is in the Chronicle,
    8 September 1877, page 16f,
    Observer,
    4 April 1896, page 33e.

    "Early German Colonists - What Type Were They - A.T. Saunders Emphatic" is in The Mail,
    29 July 1916, page 10d,
    26 May 1917, page 12c.

    "A Romantic Story" is in the Advertiser,
    21 October 1926, page 8h,
    "Our Lutheran Settlers" on
    1 February 1928, page 11f.
    "Life of German Settlers" is in the Chronicle,
    30 May 1935, page 49.

    "The Germans" is discussed in the Register,
    8 June 1839, page 2b.
    "Ode for the German Emigrants", written at the request of G.F. Angas, appears on
    25 November 1843, page 2e; also see
    16 October 1844, page 2e,
    2 November 1844, page 3e,
    27 and 28 January 1845, pages 3b and 2d,
    2 April 1845, page 3b,
    26 July 1845, page 2b,
    11 November 1846, page 2b,
    6 March 1847, page 2a,
    3 and 28 July 1847, pages 2c and 3c,
    1 August 1853, page 3f and
    South Australian Record,
    21 March 1840, page 130,
    South Australian,
    27 November 1846, page 5c,
    5 February 1847, page 7a,
    Observer,
    2 November 1850, page 2a.

    "The German Community" is in the Southern Australian,
    18 August 1843, page 2c,
    "Notes About Germans and German Villages" in the South Australian,
    17 March 1846, page 3a; also see
    Observer,
    7 November 1846, page 5c.

    The reminiscences of Mr Swain who came to South Australia in the Patel in 1845 are in the Advertiser,
    4 January 1887, page 6e.

    "Settling South Australia", a journal written by Samuel Jackson setting out the background of German immigration, is reproduced in the Register, 25 March 1896, page 6d.

    "German Naturalization" is in the Register,
    28 April 1847, page 2c and
    South Australian,
    19 May 1848, page 2b; also see
    Observer,
    12 October 1867, page 6c.

    "Captain Carr and the German Immigrants" is in the Adelaide Times,
    26 April 1850, page 4a,
    Observer,
    27 April 1850, page 2d.

    German immigration is discussed in the SA Gazette & Mining Journal,
    27 April 1850, page 4b,
    Advertiser,
    27 December 1861, page 2e.

    The origin of the Liedertafel movement is reported in the SA Gazette & Mining Journal,
    27 April 1850, page 3c.
    A photograph is in the Chronicle,
    12 September 1908, page 30.
    Also see under Adelaide - Entertainment and the Arts - Music

    "German South Australians" is in the Observer,
    27 April 1850, page 2d.

    "A Word to the German Colonists in SA" is in the Observer,
    2 November 1850, page 2a.

    "German Electioneering Tactics" is in the SA Gazette & Mining Journal,
    6 March 1851, page 3c.

    "German Immigration" is in the Observer,
    6 August 1853, page 7e.

    Interesting comment on German immigration is to be found under the heading "The Labour Question" in the Register,
    24 January 1854, page 2f.

    "The Political Rights of the Germans" is discussed in the Register,
    27 and 28 August 1855, pages 3c and 2d,
    3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12 and 17 September 1855, pages 2b-3a, 3f, 2d-h, 2c, 2h, 2d-h and 2f,
    30 October 1855, page 2d.

    "The Aliens Act" is in the Register, 13 March 1856, page 2e.

    "German Naturalization" is in the Observer,
    15 August 1857, page 6e,
    "Teutonic Nationality" on
    26 November 1859, page 6c,
    Observer,
    25 September 1858, page 7g.

    "German Immigration" is discussed in the Register,
    4, 5, 16 and 30 May 1857, pages 2g, 2c, 3g and 3e,
    Observer,
    9 May 1857, page 3d,
    23 May 1857, page 5e,
    6 June 1857, page 5f,
    15 and 29 November 1862, pages 6c and 6f,
    4 July 1863, page 1e (supp.),
    Register,
    16 April 1857, page 3d,
    4, 5, 16 and 30 May 1857, pages 2g, 2c, 3g and 3e,
    6 and 12 June 1857, pages 2c-3c and 3h; also see
    23 September 1858, page 3e,
    30 December 1858, page 2c,
    16 June 1860, page 3c (supp.),
    30 June 1860, page 2b (supp.),
    4, 13 and 29 November 1862, pages 2d, 2e and 3a.

    Also see Register,
    9 December 1862, page 2e,
    25 June 1863, page 2d,
    3 and 4 July 1863, pages 3b and 3b,
    11 September 1863, page 2h,
    28 January 1865, page 2c,
    16 and 17 February 1865, pages 2c and 3h.

    The Adelaide German Rifle Corps is discussed in the Register,
    10 April 1860, page 2h.

    An editorial of concern to German colonists is in the Observer,
    17 March 1860, page 5g under the heading "A Free Translation".

    "German Immigration" is in the Register,
    21 October 1862, page 3e,
    3, 13 and 29 November 1862, pages 2d, 2e and 3a,
    Observer,
    8 and 29 November 1862, pages 6a and 6f,
    4 February 1865, page 5e,
    25 February 1865, page 6d,
    25 August 1866, page 2e.

    Opposition to the German Immigration Bill is expressed in the Observer,
    1 August 1863, page 5b.

    A meeting of German colonists is reported in the Chronicle,
    18 February 1865, page 2g (supp.),
    Observer,
    4 and 25 February 1865, pages 5e and 6d,
    Register,
    28 January 1865, page 2c,
    16 February 1865, page 2c.

    A German fete is reported in the Register,
    10 November 1865, page 3c,
    a German festival on
    10 November 1866, page 3b.

    German immigration from South Australia is discussed in the Register,
    10, 12 and 15 August 1867, pages 2e, 2f and 2f,
    Express,
    27 and 30 May 1867, pages 2a and 2b,
    13 June 1867, pages 2b-3a and
    6 July 1867, page 2c,
    Advertiser,
    28 May 1867, pages 2d-3g,
    8 and 12 June 1867, pages 2c and 3f,
    6 July 1867, page 2c,
    21 September 1867, page 3h.
    "Our German Farmers - The Reported Exodus" appears on
    12, 14 and 20 February 1902, pages 6f, 4c-5i and 6a.

    "New Facts of Our History - Notes by Pastor Brauer" is in the Register,
    28 January 1928, page 9a,
    2 February 1928, page 12d.

    "Lutheran Pioneers" is in the Register,
    18 February 1928, page 12a; also see
    20 and 22 February 1928, pages 13g and 7a,
    1, 3, 12, 13, 16 and 17 March 1928, pages 12f, 16f, 14f, 13e, 12c and 13g.

    A meeting of German colonists in respect of German immigration is reported in the Register,
    2 July 1870, page 3d; also see
    5 and 11 June 1875, pages 4d and 7d,
    7 July 1875, page 5a, 28 August 1875, page 5b.

    "German Immigration" is in the Observer,
    9 July 1870, pages 2f-4e,
    4 October 1873, page 3a,
    6 December 1873, page 13f,
    30 May 1874, page 7d,
    5 September 1874, page 10g,
    Register,
    1 June 1874, page 3f,
    Chronicle,
    18 July 1874, page 11g,
    Observer,
    12 June 1875, page 13b,
    10 July 1875, page 13f,
    19 February 1876, page 12a,
    15 April 1876, page 13e.

    "German Emigration Agency" is in the Farmers Weekly Messenger,
    29 October 1875, page 11c.

    "Arrival of German Immigrants" is in the Chronicle,
    28 October 1876, page 12e,
    "German Emigration Difficulties" on
    24 March 1877, page 5a.

    "Mutual Relations of British and German Fellow Colonists" is in the Chronicle,
    5 September 1874, page 2e (supp.).

    German immigration is commented upon in the Register,
    20 and 21 June 1878, pages 5e and 5b,
    29 July 1878, page 4e,
    Observer,
    22 June 1878, page 12c,
    13 July 1878, page 21g,
    3 August 1878, page 10c,
    16 September 1882, page 33a,
    Register,
    29 July 1878, page 4e,
    20 August 1878, page 6d,
    5 May 1883, page 6f; also see
    14 and 16 June 1883, pages 2e (supp.) and 7a.

    The 18th anniversary of the German Club is reported in the Express,
    16 July 1872, page 2e.
    Observer,
    27 July 1872, page 10b.
    "The New German Clubhouse" is in the Observer,
    12 January 1878, page 19e,
    24 August 1878, page 22d; also see
    Express,
    21 August 1888, page 3d.

    "Unauthorised Immigration" is in the Express,
    19 June 1879, page 2b,
    "The Expected German Immigrants" in the Register,
    18 June 1879, page 4f,
    8 and 23 July 1879, pages 6a and 6a,
    Observer,
    12 July 1879, page 14a; also see
    26 July 1879, page 13e.

    "Germans in South Australia" is in the Register,
    3 February 1883, pages 5a-6d,
    5 May 1883, page 6f and
    Parliamentary Papers
    131/1873,
    40/1875,
    49a/1876.
    For other aspects of immigration see Register,
    15 January 1876, page 6c,
    13 April 1876, page 4e and 6e,
    Observer,
    9 August 1884, page 33e,
    Register,
    14 February 1885, page 5a.

    "Germans in Australia" is in the Register,
    3 February 1883, pages 5a-6d,
    5 May 1883, page 6f,
    Observer,
    10 February 1883, page 33a.

    "A German Immigration Difficulty" is in the Register,
    5 August 1884, page 6g.

    "A Worthy Colonist - Dr Ulrich Hubbe" is in the Register,
    4 October 1884, page 6b.

    "French and German Colonisation" is in the Register,
    31 December 1886, pages 4g-6a.

    "Germans and Australians" is in the Observer,
    2 July 1887, page 26d.

    The reminiscences of Mr Swain who came to South Australia in the Patel in 1845 are in the Chronicle,
    8 January 1887, page 19g.

    "German Colonization" is in the Observer,
    1 January 1887, page 14a.

    A German immigrant's story is in the Observer,
    12 March 1892, page 42b.

    "German Women and the Franchise" is in the Weekly Herald,
    31 May 1895, page 2c.

    An obituary of Bernhard Amsberg, a long-time immigration agent, is in the Observer,
    25 October 1902, page 37b.

    A photograph of the jubilee of Der Deutsche Club is in the Chronicle,
    30 July 1904, page 42.

    "Honouring a [German] Consul [H.C.E. Muecke]" is in the Register,
    28 November 1907, page 8g.

    "Germans in South Australia - A Page of Early History" is in the Register,
    26 October 1909, page 7c,
    "No German Need Apply" on
    17, 21, 28 and 30 October 1911, pages 8d, 5c, 15g and 9e,
    4 November 1911, page 15h.

    "The Germans in South Australia", by Rev John Blacket, is in the Advertiser,
    2 December 1914, page 12a.

    "Naturalised Germans" is in The Mail,
    30 September 1916, page 5b.

    "Admission of Germans" is in the Advertiser,
    31 May 1924, page 11b.

    "German Immigration" is in the Register,
    13 and 18 June 1924, pages 12f and 11g.

    "German Migrants - Should Australia Welcome Them?" is in The News,
    26 February 1926, page 6g.

    "First German Settlement" is in the Observer,
    11 February 1928, page 22d,
    "Lutheran Pioneers" on
    25 February 1928, page 17a.

    The reminiscences of Pastor Brauer are in the Register,
    28 January 1928, page 9a; also see
    2, 7, 18 and 22 February 1928, pages 12d, 7e, 12a and 7a,
    1, 12 and 13 March 1928, pages 12f,14f and 13e.

    "Women for Parliament" is in The News,
    15 July 1937, page 10d.

    "Woman Seeks SA Seat in Senate" is in The News,
    2 October 1937, page 1f.

    Immigration - Choose again