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    South Australia - Education

    B62447Comments on Education

    Education in Early South Australia

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    Intellect is not a matter of inheritance. The cottager is endowed by nature with capacities equal to the peer. Turn them both to the plough and they will be nothing else but ploughmen to the end of their days; but open up the book of knowledge to them - give them a fair start in the race - and the chances will be equal for the prize.
    (Register, 15 March 1850, page 2.)

    Introduction

    In December 1836 Walter Bromley, for twenty-five years an agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, which had founded the first school in North America in 1813, decided to migrate to South Australia in the Duke of York and it was near Kingscote, in December 1836, that he conducted South Australia's first school, when he assembled twenty-four children under a tree at Reeve's Point. He left for the mainland in May 1837 and recalled that:

    They were taught - and all of them except a wee babe - could either spell or read before I came away. While thus employed I could hardly obtain money enough to purchase bread and cheese, and the weekly pay... not amounting to more than ten shillings a week, so that instead of building a hut, I was obliged to purchase the common necessaries of life. I had, therefore, no alternative but to teach the children under a beautiful currant tree, which would have accommodated fifty or more.

    The first school established on the mainland was probably opened by Mr J.B. Shepherdson who was sent out by The SA School Society which had its headquarters in London. Upon his arrival a public meeting was held, presided over by the Governor, when arrangements were made for commencing a school; according to applications received he anticipated having about 100 pupils.

    It opened early in 1838 in a building formerly occupied by the SA Banking Company and, within twelve months, the Honorary Secretary, Mr Henry Watson, was to report that the accommodation was inadequate for 'not only the numbers then attending, but the prospective increase which the swelling tide of emigration would soon create.'

    At this time the Head Master was pleased to report that 'the moral improvement of some of the children is already obvious; some who, when first admitted, were disobedient - frequently absent during the hours of instruction - addicted to lying - profane swearing - and even theft - have become obedient and attentive - regular in their attendance - honest in their habits; falsehoods and improper language are now rarely heard from their lips.'

    Following the granting of a 21 year lease (subject to a 'pepper corn' rental) of a portion of town acre 19 owned by the South Australian Company, and fronting North Terrace on Stephens Place, and an advance of 2,000 at 12.5% per annum from that body, the erection of a new school commenced. In the margin of Kingston's map of Adelaide the front elevation of the intended building is shown, consisting of a two-storey dwelling in the middle, flanked by two large schoolrooms.

    Its fate is best told by a report which appeared in September 1841:

    The building was completed by the SA Company in 1845 and the manager, William Giles, lived in the two-storey home and the company used the other rooms as offices. In the interim period the school was continued at its original location and in July 1840, because of ill health, Mr Shepherdson left the school to go farming at Nairne; he was replaced by Mr Oldham, 'under whose active and able management the school for a considerable time flourished. Notwithstanding the disadvantage of a confined and uncomfortable room, the school was crowded, well ordered, and pleasingly answering its useful purposes.'

    While the parents were much interested in the erection of the new school, they were consequently 'wearied with the unreasonable delay... Some of them from this disgust, removed their children.' Under these circumstances the school suspended its operations for four months from May 1841, finally reopening in a 'suitable' building in Light Square. The natives were not overlooked in the thirst for enlightenment, notwithstanding the comparative failure of German missionaries' schools at Encounter Bay and Port Lincoln. At Walkerville the native children took kindly enough to trousers and shirts and to grey woollen frocks, but the wanderlust prevailed as they grew older and they drifted back to the wurley.

    At the Adelaide school the black pupils were found apt enough, but when torn between the allure of wandering abroad in fine weather, and the joys of the bowls of fresh meat and peas with which the protector of Aborigines tried to cajole them to classes, their attendance wavered and scares sent them fleeing to the scrub.

    Boys were taught farm and garden work and girls domestic duties in addition to their lessons and, despite jeers from the local press, the Protector, with solemn satisfaction, reported annually to the Commissioners in London the number of those who could read, subtract and multiply and the amount of scriptural history they had absorbed.

    As the years progressed several private schools were established but there was no appropriation of public funds until 1846 when grants were made to encourage private schools. An Education Board was appointed in 1849 and Sir Charles Cooper, Rev T.Q. Stow, Mr Smillie, Mr Farrell and Dr Duncan were the members. Many of the schools were denominational and this led to an opinion that, in fact, such grants were an aid to sectarian teaching; accordingly, the Act was repealed in 1851 'thereby throwing on the Government the responsibility of providing some State system of education.' By the end of 1853 there were 69 schools with 3,177 enrolled pupils and at the end of 1856 the figures were 139 and 6,185, respectively.

    From a welter of amateur establishments emerged two institutions, one of which did noble service to two generations, the other the germ of one of the colony's greatest denominational schools today. The first was John Lorenzo Young's Adelaide Educational Institute, which in its peregrinations from a room at the rear of Ebenezer Chapel (now built over by the East End Market), by way of Stephens Place and Gawler Place, to a final home at Young Street, Parkside, educated 1,500 young South Australians many of later distinction - Caleb Peacock, Adelaide's first native-born Mayor, Charles Cameron Kingston, the dominating figure on the colony's political horizon and Joseph Verco, doyen of our medical fraternity. The other institution was the crib in which St Peter's College was created.

    The State and Education

    In the matter of education the colony has given a good account of itself. The pecuniary aid denied to the churches has been granted to schools conducted under government auspices. This course is followed on the plea that it is the duty of the colony to see that the rising generations have the means of acquiring the elements of learning placed within their reach. This view is not accepted universally, but the great majority reconcile themselves to it as the lesser of two evils.

    The education imparted is for the most part secular, embracing as it does reading, writing, arithmetic, spelling, drill, the rudiments of grammar, geography, history and composition and in the case of girls, needlework. The principles of morality are inculcated and provision is made for the reading of the Bible for half an hour should the parents of ten children attending the school require that it should be done.

    This optional clause fails to satisfy a large section of the community and vigorous efforts have been made to introduce Bible reading as part of the school course. The fear that this would inevitably give a denominational character to a compulsory system of education, added to the inveterate objections to State interference in matters of religion, has hitherto prevented the adoption of the proposed change.

    The year 1875 marked the inauguration of the State system of education, but due acknowledgment must be given to Dr Wyatt for the invaluable work performed during the preceding twenty years. We owe much to that kindly gentleman with his sound views, his encouraging manner and his astonishingly accurate forecast of many recent educational developments. In his time the government, while making no direct provision for education, encouraged efficiency in privately conducted schools by allotting annual grants to such institutions as were certified by Dr Wyatt to be worthy.

    Further, 1875 was memorable because it was then that parliament decreed that no child should be exempt from attendance at some school where the elements of an English education were taught. In the main the Act was well carried out, as was proved by the rarity of illiterates in our midst. Meanwhile, the conception of education has broadened continually.

    Viewed, perhaps, at first as an act of charity towards the children of the poor, universal education became to be recognised as being in the interests of all. Ignorance spelled danger and incompetence - loss, not merely to the ignorant individual, but to the State as a whole.

    A lack of education had doubtless prevented many an embryo physician, business manager and statesman from fulfilling his destiny and fully benefiting his fellows. The Act of 1875 made it compulsory for a child to attend school 35 days a quarter until he passed a fourth class examination when, no matter how young, he was at liberty to leave, sometimes at the early age of nine. Today the standard has been raised, greater regularity demanded together with an increase in the leaving age.

    Free education dates from 1892, but the abolition of fees did not ensure the attendance of children because not every family could afford to let their children remain at school to complete a secondary course. What appeared to be a better plan was the extension and liberalisation of the present system of scholarships, so that every young person of marked ability could be paid a living allowance that would enable him to embrace those opportunities. The State would then have been able to utilise its best brains.

    Education Boards and Boards of Advice

    Letters concerning the Board of Education are in the
    Observer, 31 July 1852, page 2b,
    21 August 1852, page 3a.

    "The Education Board" is in the Register,
    6 February 1854, page 2f,
    "The Board of Education" in the Observer,
    24 May 1856, page 5d.

    "Education Board" is in the Register,
    9 April 1864, page 2f;
    also see 11, 12 and 13 April 1864, pages 3e, 3c and 3c,
    19 December 1864, page 2e.

    "The Secular Teachings of the Education Board" is in the Register,
    8 June 1867, page 2c.

    An obituary of E.W. Wickes, former secretary of the Board of Education, is in the Register,
    31 August 1868, page 2g.

    "The Educational Board and Theological Teaching" is in the Observer,
    22 April 1871, page 13f.

    "The Education Board and Denominational Schools" is in the Observer,
    24 June 1871, page 13b.

    "Church of England Education Board" is in the Register,
    10 August 1871, page 4f.
    "The Board of Education and the Government" on 31 January 1874, page 2f.

    "The Last of the Old Education Board" is in the Register,
    12 September 1876, page 4e,
    Observer, 16 September 1876, page 17e.

    "Boards of Advice and the Education Department" is in the Register,
    26 March 1888, pages 4g-6c,
    11, 15, 16, 18 and 20 April 1892, pages 5a, 7c, 4e, 5a-6g and 4h.

    "What Are School Boards of Advice?" is in the Register,
    24 April 1901, page 4d.

    "School Boards of Advice" is in the Register,
    21 and 22 August 1890, pages 4e and 4e-7d, 2 May 1892, page 4g,
    Chronicle, 23 August 1890, page 10c,
    Observer, 30 January 1892, page 25b,
    13 February 1892, page 25b. 2 and 23 April 1892, pages 30a and 24e,
    Register, 8 May 1895, page 4d.

    . "What Are School Boards of Advice?" is in the Register,
    24 April 1901, page 4d;
    also see 2 April 1904, page 4d.

    A conference of school boards is reported in the Express,
    21 August 1890, page 2b.

    South Australia - Free Education

    "Free Schools" is in the Register,
    31 March 1847, page 2c.

    A government free school is described in the Register,
    23 October 1862, page 3b;
    Also see Adelaide - Education

    "Free School for the Poor" is in the Chronicle,
    13 February 1869, pages 5c-6d.

    "Free Education" is in The Irish Harp,
    14 November 1873, page 4d,
    "Free, Secular and Compulsory Education" on 19 February 1875, page 4a;
    also see Register,
    28 April 1880, page 4d,
    15 July 1884, page 4g,
    21 August 1884, page 4d,
    11 September 1884, pages 4g-5a,
    13 and 23 June 1891, pages 4e and 6f.

    "Free Scholars in Government Schools" is in the Observer,
    4 and 11 March 1876, pages 13b and 13c, Register,
    2 and 3 March 1876, pages 4c and 5a.

    "Free Education and School Fees" is in the Chronicle,
    19 May 1883, page 5f;
    also see Register,
    3 September 1885, page 4g.

    "Free Education" is in the Register,
    17 and 21 July 1883, pages 7a and 4g,
    17 and 31 July 1884, pages 4f and 4h,
    20 and 22 May 1886, pages 3h and 7f, 3,
    6 and 22 October 1890, pages 4e, 4e-6d and 4d,
    24 and 28 November 1890, pages 4g and 4e,
    13 and 25 June 1891, pages 4e and 3h, 11 September 1891, page 4d,
    26 October 1891, page 5h, 31 December 1891, page 4e,
    19 and 23 January 1892, pages 6a and 4f-6e,
    19 February 1892, page 7d, 28 June 1893, page 4h.

    Free education is the subject of comment in the Advertiser,
    1 January 1890, page 3g, 28 July 1890, page 4d,
    17, 22 and 24 October 1890, pages 3d-6c, 7d and 4d,
    28 November 1890, page 4e, 19 June 1891, page 4d,
    8 July 1891, page 4c, 1 January 1892, page 5e,
    Register, 22 October 1890, page 4d,
    24 and 28 November 1890, pages 4g and 4g,
    31 December 1891, page 4e, 19 and 23 January 1892, pages 6a and 4f,
    8 February 1892, page 5b,
    Observer, 20 June 1891, page 24d, 12 September 1891, page 25a,
    31 October 1891, page 6e, 30 January 1892, page 25a.

    "Lutheran Schools and Free Education" is in the Observer,
    21 November 1891, page 30b.

    "Private Teachers and Free Education" is in the Advertiser,
    28 September 1891, page 7b.

    An interesting letter on "Free Education" is in the Advertiser,
    7 July 1928, page 15b;
    also see The News,
    30 August 1933, page 4d, 5 April 1934, page 1a,
    Advertiser, 15 September 1936, page 22d.

    "Teachers' Case for Free High Schools" is in the Advertiser,
    1 and 3 August 1931, pages 11c and 8f.

    "Need for Free High School Education" is in The Mail,
    16 September 1933, page 4d.

    South Australia - Education - Reports and Parliamentary Bills

    The annual report of the chief inspector of schools is in the Observer,
    13 March 1858, page 2g (supp.).

    "The Education Bill" is in the Register,
    22 May 1861, page 2c,
    Observer,
    1 and 8 June 1861, pages 5e and 1a (supp.).

    "Report of the Education Committee" is discussed in the Register,
    26 November 1868, page 2d.

    "The Education Bill" in the Observer,
    9 September 1871, page 4a.

    "The Education Bill" is in the Observer,
    6 and 13 September 1873, pages 2f and 4a.

    "The New Education Bill" is in the Register,
    18, 22, 23, 24 and 25 June 1875, pages 4e, 7a, 5c, 7d and 6f,
    8 July 1875, page 4e, 3 and 20 August 1875, pages 5f and 4d,
    22 September 1875, page 4c,
    "The New Education Act" on 30 October 1875, page 4f,
    4 November 1875, page 7b.

    "The Education Report" is in the Register,
    2 June 1879, page 4c.

    "Education Report - Comparative Statement" is in the Register,
    23 June 1883, page 4f.

    "The Education Bill" is in the Register,
    29 October 1884, pages 4e-5b.

    "The Education Bill" is in the Observer,
    1 November 1884, page 24d,
    Register,
    13 August 1891, page 4e.

    "The Education Report for 1883" is in the Register,
    6 June 1884, page 4f.

    "Education Report for 1884" is in the Register,
    5 June 1885, page 4g.

    "The Education Policy" is in the Register,
    3 April 1890, page 7c.

    "The Education Report" is in the Register,
    7 June 1889, page 4g,
    24 July 1901, page 4c, 18 April 1902, page 4d.

    "The Education Bill" is in the Register,
    30 November 1889, page 4f,
    3 and 4 December 1889, pages 4g and 5a, 3 July 1891, page 4f.

    "The Education Report for 1889" is in the Register,
    6 June 1890, page 4g.

    "The Education Report" in the Observer,
    27 June 1891, page 39b, 1 July 1893, page 25b.

    "Wanted - An Education Policy" is in the Register,
    3 October 1905, page 4c.

    "The Education Report" is in the Register,
    3 July 1903, page 4e, 6 July 1906, page 4d-h.

    "State Education" is in the Register,
    7 July 1906, page 10e, 15 October 1908, page 6c.

    "Education Reform" is in the Register,
    22 February 1907, page 4c, 2 and 28 March 1908, pages 4c and 9f.

    "Education Report" is in the Register,
    28 and 29 June 1907, pages 6f and 8c,
    23 July 1909, pages 6c-10e.

    "Educational Progress" is in the Register,
    6 July 1907, page 6c.

    "Educational Requirements" is in the Register,
    4 January 1909, page 4c.

    "The Education Policy" is in the Register,
    11 November 1909, page 6c.

    "Modern Education ", including photographs, is in the Register,
    29 January 1910, page 6b.

    "State Education - More Searching Criticism" is in the Register,
    28 June 1910, page 8e.

    "The Education Bill" is in the Register,
    10, 15, 16 and 19 November 1910, pages 6c, 4b, 5g and 12c,
    26 July 1911, page 6b, 1 August 1911, page 9a,
    9 and 10 September 1915, pages 6b-9f and 11e,
    19 and 26 October 1915, pages 4b-5a and 4b,
    2 November 1915, page 4b, 14 January 1916, page 4i,
    14 October 1916, page 9c.

    "Standards of Education" is in the Register,
    8 March 1917, page 6b.

    "State Education" is in the Register,
    13 July 1917, page 6d.

    "Education" is in the Register,
    10 April 1918, pages 6b-d-e and 7f.

    "The Education Report" is in the Register,
    3 April 1919, pages 6b-9d, 27 April 1920, pages 4d-6a.

    South Australia - The Education System

    "Old Time Education" is in the Register,
    10 May 1920, page 8e.
    A letter from Mr J.B. Shepherdson is in the Observer,
    8 September 1894, page 11c;
    his obituary is in the Chronicle,
    29 May 1897, page 20a.

    "Our Educational System" is in the Express,
    5 June 1867, page 2a.
    "Cost of the New Education System" on 27 October 1873, page 4f;
    also see 31 October 1873, page 6b, 4 and 12 November 1873, pages 5f and 4d,
    1 and 2 December 1873, pages 4e and 4e, 5 April 1882, page 4c.

    "Mr Basedow and Our Education System" in the Chronicle,
    11 and 18 August 1877, pages 5 and 5a, 8 September 1877, page 5a.

    A letter from C.H. Spence in respect of "Our Education System" is in the Observer,
    28 July 1877, page 9g.

    "Our Educational System" is in the Register,
    25 July 1877, page 7c, 2, 11 and 20 August 1877, pages 7c, 6g and 7e.

    A proposed enquiry into the education system is discussed in the Advertiser,
    4, 6 and 7 August 1877, pages 4e, 4f and 4e;
    also see 1 April 1878, page 4d, 29 December 1880, page 4d.

    "Chief Faults of the Education System of SA" is in the Observer,
    8 February 1879, page 22b, Register,
    25 January 1879, page 2b (supp.).

    "Our Education System" is in the Observer,
    5 June 1880, page 924e.

    "Our Education System" is in the Register,
    13 May 1881, page 4e, 27 September 1881, page 4d.

    "Education in SA" is in the Register,
    18 and 19 July 1881, pages 1c (supp.) and 4f.

    "Our Educational System" is debated in the Advertiser,
    22 November 1886, page 7b,
    9 and 14 December 1886, pages 6g and 3f, 7, 9,
    16 and 20 February 1888, pages 7d, 7b, 7d and 7b,
    15 March 1888, page 7c,

    "The New Education Regulations" in the Chronicle,
    4 February 1888, page 5b.

    "Criticism of State Education" is in the Register,
    12 February 1887, page 4g.

    The education systems of Victoria and South Australia are discussed in the Register,
    29 and 30 May 1888, pages 5g and 6c, 4 June 1888, page 7e.

    An editorial reviewing the education system is in the Advertiser,
    28 January 1892, page 4b; BR> also see 11 August 1892, page 4b, 13 December 1892, page 4e,
    26 January 1894, page 6b.
    "Our Education System" on 15 August 1895, page 7a,
    "The State Schools and Their Work" on 20 January 1896, page 4e.

    "Our Education System" in the Register,
    15 August 1895, page 7a,
    Advertiser,
    3 July 1896, page 4h.

    "The Education System" is in the Register,
    22 January 1903, page 5b.

    "Our Education System" is in the Register,
    8 May 1899, page 3g, 13 April 1908, page 6g.

    "Education Regulations" is in the Register,
    25 September 1906, page 4b.

    "Our Education System" is in the Observer,
    10 March 1906, page 43e, 25 April 1908, page 41c,
    2 May 1908, page 47e.

    "Our Education System" is in the Advertiser, 9 January 1908, page 7f,
    "The Education System - Is Money Being Wasted" in the Register,
    28 March 1908, page 9f, 2 April 1908, page 5a,
    "The Education System" on 8, 9 and 13 April 1908, pages 5b, 5d and 6g.

    Comments on Education - Miscellany

    A history of education in South Australia appears in the Advertiser,
    24 January 1934, page 28 and
    1 September 1936 (special edition), page 24.

    "Proposed Schools in the Province" is in the Register,
    3 June 1837, page 4a,
    "First School Under Tree" in the Advertiser,
    12 July 1933, page 40c.

    A letter from Mr J.B. Shepherdson is in the Observer,
    8 September 1894, page 11c;
    his obituary is in the Chronicle,
    29 May 1897, page 20a.

    The first annual meeting of the South Australian School Society is reported in the Register on
    4 May 1839, page 2b; also see
    10 August 1839, page 6b,
    4 and 18 September 1841, pages 3e and 3a,
    22 October 1842, page 3a and
    Southern Australian,
    1 May 1839, page 4a,
    3 September 1841, page 3c,
    1 October 1841, page 2e,
    2 May 1843, page 2b.

    "Religion and Education in SA in 1840" is discussed in the Advertiser,
    11 May 1881, page 6f; also see
    Observer,
    10 July 1858, page 5e.
    "Old-Time Education" is in the Observer,
    8 May 1920, page 13e.

    "Public Education in SA" is in the Register,
    5 October 1844, page 2e,
    "The Importance of Education" on
    19 July 1845, page 2d,
    3 June 1846, page 2d,
    "Riches and Education" on
    4 November 1846, page 3b.

    Letters from two school teachers concerning "official school returns" are in the Observer,
    19 January 1850, page 3a (supp.).

    Education is discussed in the South Australian,
    8 and 12 August 1845, pages 2c and 2c.

    "Should Government Provide for Religious Instruction and Education" is in the South Australian,
    21 April 1846, page 2b,
    12 May 1846, page 2b.
    A cartoon is in The Lantern,
    23 May 1885, page 9.
    Also see South Australia - Religion - Religion in Schools.

    "Education" is in the Observer,
    9 January 1847, page 4b.

    "Education in SA" is in the Register,
    3 April 1847, page 2c.

    Colonial education is discussed in the South Australian,
    27 June 1848, page 2b:

    Letters from two school teachers concerning "official school returns" are in the Observer,
    19 January 1850, page 3a (supp.).

    "The Education Question Again" is in the Register,
    15 March 1850, page 2d and 16 April 1850, page 2e:

    "Should the State Educate the Multitude" is in the Register,
    25 July 1850, page 2e,
    "The Educational Grant" on
    31 December 1850, page 3b,
    "Education" on
    9, 28, and 29 November 1853, pages 2f, 3d and 3e,
    3, 6 and 8 December 1853, pages 3e, 2e and 3e.

    "Our Educational Requirements" is in the Observer,
    11 January 1851, page 1a (supp.).

    "Secular Education" is in the SA Gazette & Mining Journal,
    8 March 1851, page 3b.

    Letters concerning the Board of Education are in the Observer,
    31 July 1852, page 2b,
    21 August 1852, page 3a.

    "Education for the Children of the Poor" is in the Observer,
    15 January 1853, page 5b,
    "Education of Destitute Children" in the Catholic Herald,
    19 October 1867,
    20 October 1868, page 205,
    "Education of the Poor" in the Advertiser,
    17 and 18 August 1868, pages 2d-3a and 2e,
    8 and 10 February 1869, pages 2d and 2h,
    26 March 1869, page 3f,
    13 May 1870, page 2d,
    Express,
    6 February 1869, page 2a,
    12 May 1870, page 2b.

    "The Education Board" is in the Register,
    6 February 1854, page 2f,
    "The Progress of Education" on
    1 and 5 March 1856, pages 2d and 3g.

    "The Board of Education" is in the Observer,
    24 May 1856, page 5d.

    "Popular Education" is in the Observer,
    1 September 1855, page 1d (supp.).

    "Practical Education" is in the Register,
    11 July 1856, page 2e,
    "Public Education" on
    19 August 1856, page 2d,
    Observer,
    17 January 1857, page 6d,
    14 February 1857, page 6d,
    7 March 1857, page 6d,
    27 June 1857, page 6e.

    "Education and Recreation" is in the Register,
    26 December 1856, page 2d-h,
    "The Education Tax" on
    30 April 1857, page 2d.

    "The Education of Destitute Children" is in the Register,
    18 September 1857, page 3h,
    "Education in South Australia" on
    5, 8 and 12 March 1859, pages 2f, 2g and 3b,
    13 and 17 October 1859, pages 2g and 3a,
    "Public Education" on
    6, 12, 19, 26 and 28 April 1859, pages 2f-3e, 3b, 3e, 3a and 3e.

    On the subject of education the Advertiser of 14 July 1858, page 2c says:

    "Education in South Australia" is in the Observer,
    5 and 12 March 1859, pages 1e (supp.) and 5b,
    15 October 1859, page 6b,
    31 August 1861, page 6a,
    7 September 1861, page 1c (supp.).
    Register,
    13 and 17 October 1859, pages 2g and 3a.

    "Public Education" is in the Register,
    9 July 1860, page 2g,
    21 and 25 January 1868, pages 2e and 3e,
    Observer,
    9 April 1859, page 6a.

    "Public School Education" is in the Observer,
    5 January 1861, page 6d.

    "The New Educational Controversy" is in the Register,
    1, 2, 4, 9 and 12 October 1860, pages 2e, 2f, 2f, 3e and 2g.

    "The Education Bill" is in the Observer,
    1 and 8 June 1861, pages 5e and 1a (supp.).

    "State Aid to Education" is reported in the Register,
    23 July 1861, page 2b,
    "The New School Licences" on
    7 and 11 January 1862, pages 2f and 3d,
    "Education" on
    29 January 1862, page 2f,
    3, 10 and 12 March 1863, pages 3c, 2e and 2g,
    "The Education Controversy" is discussed in the Advertiser,
    21 September 1863, page 2g,
    "Education" in the Observer,
    24 December 1864, page 6c,
    "Middle-Class Education" on
    25 March 1865, page 6c.

    "Education of Children" is in the Advertiser,
    15 April 1865, page 3b,
    "Hints on Education" on
    26 December 1866, page 2e.

    "Popular Education" is in the Express,
    11 July 1865, page 2a,
    8 February 1869, page 2b.

    "Educational Reform" is in the Register,
    14 June 1866, page 2e,
    "Education" on
    7 July 1866, page 2h.

    "Our Common School System" is in the Register,
    4 September 1866, page 2c,
    Observer,
    29 September 1866, page 6d,
    Register,
    28 December 1866, page 2f,
    "Denominational Education" in the Express,
    29 October 1866, page 2d.

    "Compulsory Education" is in the Advertiser,
    21 February 1867, page 2d,
    17 July 1868, page 2e,
    Register,
    8 November 1869, page 3b,
    16 January 1877, page 4d,
    Observer,
    2 March 1878, page 3d,
    20 January 1877, page 13a,
    Observer,
    2 March 1878, page 3d,
    27 April 1878, page 10g,
    Register,
    21 September 1878, page 4d,
    "Compulsory Education and the Country Teachers" is in the Observer,
    6 March 1880, page 404d.
    A poem titled "Kompulsory Heddicashun" is in The Adelaide Punch on
    6 June 1883,
    "The Compulsory Clause and Free Education" in the Observer,
    19 July 1884, page 24d.
    "Compulsory Education" is in the Advertiser,
    13 October 1904, page 4d,
    4 May 1905, page 4d,
    8 November 1905, page 6d,
    7 December 1905, page 6d.
    "Compulsory School Attendance" is in the Observer,
    29 July 1911, page 47b.

    "Our Educational System" is in the Express,
    5 June 1867, page 2a.

    "Public Education in 1867" is in the Observer,
    25 January 1868, page 12d.

    "Education of the Working Classes" is in the Register,
    21 July 1868, page 2d,
    "The Education Debate" on
    13 August 1868, page 2d.

    "Education in SA" is in the Observer,
    15 August 1868, page 16e,
    5 September 1868, page 9e.

    "Education a Superfluity" is in the Register,
    1 and 3 September 1868, pages 2c-3a and 3c,
    12 October 1868, page 2f,
    4 November 1868, page 3e.

    "The Education Question in the Congregational Union" is in the Register,
    4 May 1869, page 2d,
    "The Synod on Education" on
    28 May 1869, page 2d.

    "Educational Experiments" is in the Register,
    22 June 1869, page 2e,
    "The Assembly and Its Educational Theories" on
    3 December 1869, page 2c.

    Female education is discussed in the Observer,
    26 June 1869, page 7d,
    3, 24 and 31 July 1869, pages 10f, 6f and 11g.
    Also see Women - Education

    "The Education Board and Denominational Schools" is in the Observer,
    24 June 1871, page 13b,
    "Public Education in South Australia" on
    24 June 1871, page 13c,
    "The Education Bill" on
    9 September 1871, page 4a.

    "Inspector Jung on Education" is in the Express,
    14 July 1874, page 3e.

    "State Education" is in The Irish Harp,
    21 May 1875, page 5a,
    2 and 16 July 1875, pages 5b and 4a.

    "The Education Question" is in the Observer,
    12 and 26 June 1875, pages 11e and 4,
    "Education Regulations" is in the Advertiser,
    8 January 1876, page 6a,
    11, 13, 15 and 31 January 1876, pages 4c, 7a, 4e and 4e-5e,
    Observer,
    15 and 29 January 1876, pages 13e and 13a.

    "Working of the Education Act" is in the Observer,
    1 September 1877, page 12f.

    "Professor Pearson on Education" is in the Observer,
    20 April 1878, page 11c,
    4 May 1878, page 10c.

    "The Revised Education Regulations" is in the Register,
    14 February 1877, page 4e,
    Observer,
    4 May 1878, page 3a,
    "Education Regulations" on
    31 May 1879, page 4e,
    7 and 19 July 1879, pages 4d and 4d,
    10 July 1879, page 4d.

    "The Government Schools and the German Language" is in the Chronicle,
    26 October 1878, page 12f.
    Also see Miscellany, Teachers - Miscellany and World War I - Germans in Australia.

    "State Education" is in the Observer, 29 March 1879, page 10b.

    "Education in SA" is in the Register, 3 June 1879, page 4c.

    A letter from B.T. Finniss headed "The Education of the People" is in the Register,
    1 August 1879 (supp.), page 2f:

    "The New Education" is in the Register,
    28 and 29 May 1890, pages 6e and 4e,
    11 July 1890, page 4g.

    "Teaching in Lutheran Schools" is in the Register,
    22 September 1880, page 5b.

    A series of letters concerning education are in the Register,
    21, 22, 23, 26 and 28 February 1881, pages 6g-7a, 7b, 7a, 1e (supp.) and 1d (supp.),
    1, 3 and 10 March 1881, pages 4e, 7a and 7b.

    "What Our School System Expects of Our Boys" is in the Observer,
    17 September 1881, page 24e.

    "Educational Standards" is in the Observer,
    24 September 1881, page 33c,
    1 October 1881, page 24d.

    "Errors in Elementary Education" is in the Register,
    27 September 1883, page 6d.

    In an editorial the Advertiser of 30 November 1885, page 4d says:

    "The New Standards of Education" is in the Register,
    7, 14, 16 and 17 June 1887, pages 5g, 3h, 6d and 3f,
    12 July 1887, page 3f; also see
    21 June 1887 (supp.) for a history of education in SA.

    "Bishop Kennion on Education" is in the Register,
    10 and 11 August 1887, pages 4g and 6g.

    "The Education Question" is discussed in the Register,
    9, 11 and 12 November 1889, pages 4g, 7e and 7g,
    Advertiser,
    20 September 1895, page 4g.

    "The New Education" is in the Register,
    28 and 29 May 1890, pages 6e and 4e,
    3 June 1890, page 7f.

    "Education Regulations" is in the Observer,
    23 January 1892, page 24d,
    "Special Education" on
    27 February 1892, page 25d,
    Register,
    19 February 1892, page 4f.

    "Revised Education Regulations" is in the Register,
    12 February 1892, page 4g.

    "The Education Referendum" is discussed in the Register,
    24 and 25 March 1896, pages 4f and 7b,
    6, 16, 24 and 29 April 1896, pages 6b, 4e, 3d and 4f,
    26 May 1896, page 4d.

    "The Teaching of Sewing" is in the Observer,
    27 June 1896, page 15e.

    An article entitled "The Late Mr Hartley on Education" is in the Register on
    17 September 1896, page 7c,
    An obituary of Mr J.A. Hartley is in the Chronicle,
    19 September 1896, page 17a. Also see
    Observer,
    17 November 1923, page 54d.

    "Australian Character and Education" on
    25 April 1898, page 4f.

    "The Importance of Education" is traversed in the Advertiser,
    7 February 1898, page 4f,
    "Secondary Education" on
    4 August 1898, page 4e,
    Register,
    21 July 1898, page 4d.

    "Schools and Their Work" is in the Observer,
    1 July 1899, page 13a.

    "School Music in SA" is in the Observer,
    25 August 1900, page 30e,
    "Musical Education" is in the Register,
    6 May 1916, page 8c.
    "Music in High Schools" is in the Register,
    18 March 1918, page 4d,
    Observer,
    23 March 1918, page 29a.
    Also see South Australia - Education - Music, Singing & Art

    "Education and the Schools" is in the Register on
    6 July 1900, pages 4c-6g,
    "Education in the Colonies" on
    25 May 1901, page 4h; also see
    29 and 30 May 1901, pages 6d and 6h,
    5 June 1901, page 6e.

    "Sensible Schooling" is in the Observer,
    30 March 1901, page 33a.

    "Commercial Education" is in the Register on
    25 October 1901, page 4c and
    12 January 1904, page 4c,
    18 February 1909, page 4c.

    "Education Here and Elsewhere" is in the Register,
    5 May 1902, page 3a.

    "The Education Regulations" is in the Register,
    27 June 1902, page 4d.

    "Education Reform" is discussed in the Register,
    3, 6, 7, 12, 15, 16 and 22 January 1903, pages 6c, 7f, 6f, 4d, 6i, 5e and 5b and
    11 December 1903, page 4d,
    Advertiser,
    2 March 1904, page 4d,
    Register,
    5 October 1904, page 4c,
    5 May 1905, page 4d,
    18, 20 and 21 September 1905, pages 4c, 9c and 6g,
    7 October 1905, page 4e,
    22 February 1907, page 4c,
    2 March 1908, pages 4c-8e.

    "Enjoyment in Education" is in the Register on
    19 January 1903, page 4c,
    "An Educational Awakening" on
    19 January 1904, page 4d.

    "The Cost of Education" is in the Advertiser,
    20 November 1902,, page 4d,
    "Retrenchment in Education" on
    4 August 1903, page 4b,
    16 September 1903, page 4d.

    "The Spirit of Education" is commented upon in the Register,
    4 July 1904, page 4b,
    "Moral Aim in Education" on
    23 July 1904, page 6c.

    "Education and Society" is in the Register,
    11 October 1904, page 4c,
    "Elementary Education" on
    16 January 1905, page 4b.

    "Wanted - An Education Policy" is in the Register,
    3 October 1905, page 4c.

    "Ideal Education" is in the Advertiser,
    6 July 1904, page 4c.

    "Education Reform" is in the Register,
    6 July 1903, page 4b,
    5 May 1905, page 4d,
    18, 20 and 21 September 1905, pages 4c, 9c, 4h-6g and 4e,
    1 July 1909, page 4c.

    "Progress and Education" is in the Register,
    2 July 1906, page 4c,
    "Education Regulations" on
    25 September 1906, page 4b,
    "Democracy and Education" on
    27 October 1906, page 6d.

    "The New Education" is in the Register,
    10 November 1906, page 8c.

    "Education and its Enforcement" is discussed in the Register,
    7 January 1907, page 7h,
    "The New Curriculum" on
    25 February 1907, page 4i,
    "Education and Truth" on
    4 March 1907, page 9g,
    "Education Frills" on
    26 July 1907, page 6i.

    "Duplicating Education" is in the Register,
    27 April 1908, page 4d.

    Letters in respect of education are in the Register,
    12 September 1908, page 13h,
    "Education Requirements" on
    4 January 1909, page 4c,
    "Commercial Education" on
    18 February 1909, page 4c.

    "Education Defects" is in the Register,
    28 June 1909, page 6c,
    "Education Reform" on
    1 July 1909, page 4c,
    "Education Policy" on
    11 November 1909, page 6c.

    "Education Development" is in the Register,
    24 December 1909, page 4d,
    "Modern Education" on
    29 January 1910, page 6b,
    "Public Education" on
    3 June 1910, page 12e.

    "Ideals in Education" is in the Register,
    19 November 1910, page 12c,
    "Public Education" on
    29 June 1911, page 6c.

    "Overcrowded Schools" is in the Express,
    24 February 1916, page 5f,
    Observer,
    4 June 1921, page 30e.

    "Education After the War" is in the Advertiser,
    31 July 1916, page 6d.

    "The Educational Highway" is in the Register,
    26 September 1913, page 8e,
    "Education Act in Force" on
    14 January 1916, page 4h; also see
    3 April 1916, page 4b,
    "Musical Education" on
    6 May 1916, page 8c.

    "Education Reform" is in the Register,
    2 July 1917, page 6b,
    "The Education Bill" on
    9 September 1915, page 6b,
    "Too Many Education Cooks" on
    4 August 1916, page 4d.

    "Education in South Australia", an address by Mr Angas Parsons, is in the Advertiser,
    9 September 1919, page 7d,
    "The School and the State" on
    2 January 1920, page 6d.

    "Adult Education" is discussed in the Register on
    12 March 1920, page 6c,
    "Old-Time Education" on
    10 May 1920, page 8e,
    "Educational Stock Takings" on
    11 December 1920, page 8e,
    4 February 1921, page 5b.

    "Opportunities in Education" is in the Register,
    11 November 1921, page 7c,
    "Education's Steady March" on
    3 July 1923, page 11a,
    "Education Aims" in the Advertiser,
    29 June 1921, page 11c.

    "Vocational Education" is in the Advertiser,
    19 and 28 August 1924, pages 13b-15d and 8d,
    "Co-Education" on
    15 July 1925, page 12g.

    "Fifty Years of Education" is traversed in the Register,
    22 August 1925, page 9a,
    "Educational Broadcasting" on
    26 June 1926, page 10f.
    Also see Communications - Wireless and Radio.

    "Education Forges Ahead" is in The Mail,
    12 June 1926, page 1c.

    "Progress in Education - Director's Review of Ten Years" is in the Advertiser,
    28 August 1926, page 18b,
    "Ideals in Education" on
    31 August 1926, page 12g.

    "Agricultural Education" is in the Register,
    30 August 1928, page 5a-h .

    "The New Education - Old Ideas Exploded" is in the Advertiser,
    27 April 1928, page 17a.

    "Education Up To Date" is in the Advertiser,
    27 September 1929, page 12f.

    "Modern Trend in Education" is in The News,
    18 May 1933, page 8e.

    "Education and its Purpose" is debated in the Advertiser,
    23 June 1933, page 18i,
    1 and 11 July 1933, pages 18g and 8h,
    "Educational Reform" on
    20 December 1933, page 20e.

    "Faith in Education" is in the Advertiser,
    29 August 1935, page 14h,
    "Changing Trend in Education" on
    16 May 1936, page 22e.

    Education - Choose again