South Australia - Miscellany
- Agricultural, Floricultural & Horticultural Shows
- Burying the Dead
- Clocks and Time
- Commercial Travellers
- Empire Day
- Flags and Patriotic Songs
- Fortune Telling, Spiritualism
- Government and Allied Matters
- Guy Fawkes Day
- Land Development
- Language and Allied Matters
- Leisure and Allied Matters
- Local Government
- Male Miscellany
- Metric Systems of Money and Measurement
- Royal Visits
- Squatters and Pastoralists
- The South Australian Company and Allied Matters
- Water Divining and Rainmaking
- Wattle Day
- Weather, Astronomy and Allied Matters
A poem entitled "Cremation Ho" is in The Lantern,
7 November 1874, page 5b,
22 January 1881, page 7.
"Cremation in England" is in the Register,
22 February 1883, page 5c.
This subject is discussed in the Advertiser,
5 March 1883, page 4d,
22 May 1884, page 4e,
3 and 4 June 1897, pages 2c and 3c,
7 September 1887, page 6e,
10 September 1887, page 6e,
10 September 1887, page 8c,
18 October 1890, page 7a,
10 and 13 January 1887, pages 7b and 7b,
10 October 1890, page 7f,
20 November 1890, page 4g,
19 July 1890, page 7a,
20 November 1890, pages 4d-6d.
"Permissive Cremation" is in the Observer,
22 November 1890, page 25d; also see
12 and 14 July 1892, pages 7c and 4f.
Information on a "Cremation Bill" is in the Register,
19 June 1891, page 4f and
a proposed crematorium in the Advertiser,
3 June 1897, pages 3i-4g; also see
3 August 1897, page 4b,
10 February 1892, page 6d,
15 December 1897, page 4f and Place Names - Rosebery.
"Bury or Burn" is in the Observer,
29 May 1897, page 12a.
Where to place the crematorium is discussed in the Observer,
5 June 1897, page 29d,
24 July 1897, page 31c.
"Cremation and Crime" is in the Advertiser,
19 May 1898, page 4e,
"Ethics of Cremation" on
20 September 1900, page 4e.
A proposed crematorium is reported on
20 April 1901, page 10d.
"Miss Frances Willard and Cremation" is in the Register,
28 May 1898, page 5a.
"Synod Would Cremate" is in the Register,
13 May 1898, page 5a.
Also see Register,
17 January 1900, page 10g,
20 and 26 February 1901, pages 4h and 4g,
12 and 30 March 1901, pages 4f and 7a,
20 April 1901, page 8g,
23 February 1901, page 30c,
Express, 19 and
19 and 20 February 1901, pages 2c and 4b,
29 May 1901, page 2b,
27 September 1902, page 1c,
16 october 1902, page 1f,
22 January 1903, page 2e,
8 September 1902, page 6e,
27 September 1902, page 9i,
22 October 1902, page 4d,
17 and 18 October 1902, pages 4f and 10d,
12 March 1903, page 4e,
5 May 1903, page 5c.
25 October 1902, page 4,
14 February 1903, page 25,
25 October 1902, pages 24-34a.
A photograph of the Adelaide crematorium is in the Observer,
31 January 1903, page 25,
22 January 1903, page 4e,
12 March 1903, page 4e.
Information on and a photograph of the first cremation in Adelaide are in the Chronicle,
9 May 1903, pages 35d and 44; also see
7 November 1903, page 33b.
"Cremation Society Ceases" is in the Register,
6 June 1903, page 6i.
"Cremation at West Terrace" is in the Advertiser,
30 October 1903, page 7b,
21 May 1907, page 4e,
1 June 1907, page 8f,
12 March 1908, page 6e.
"Another Adelaide Cremation" is in the Register
30 October 1903, page 3b - The Late Dr Shand - "the first European cremated at the local institution".
"The Third Cremation [Dr R.T. Wylde]" is in the Register,
30 November 1903, page 5a.
"Exhumed and Cremated" is in the Register,
8 April 1904, page 4h.
A list of cremations is in the Observer,
29 December 1906, page 29a.
"A New Kind of Cremation" is in the Register,
22 October 1908, page 8g.
Also see Register,
28 September 1907, page 8h,
25 May 1912, page 19c,
21 May 1914, page 7c,
23 May 1914, page 36c,
Register 15 January 1917, page 4c,
19 and 25 September 1918, pages 7b and 6g,
20 and 21 September 1918, pages 4c and 9d,
10 February 1919, page 4e,
3 September 1924, page 7a,
15 October 1924, page 11b,
6 February 1925, page 8d,
10 November 1925, page 8d,
23 November 1925, page 5a and
12 and 14 November 1930, pages 12d and 18h-22f.
"Cremation or Burial" is in the Express,
19 September 1918, page 3b.
"Clergyman Favours Cremation" is in The Mail,
2 June 1923, page 3a.
Information on the crematorium is in the Register,
10 and 17 June 1930, pages 2b and 7c,
5 July 1930, page 7c,
19 July 1937, page 22f.
An origin of the term "crow eater" is explored in the Register, 6 February 1925, page 13e:
[It] was first applied to some of the original settlers at Mount Barker who - whether from necessity or a desire to sample strange native fauna - killed, cooked and ate some crows disguised under the term "Mount Barker pheasants"... Later the term... was applied generally to all.
Also see Register, 18 and 22 December 1926, pages 15g and 12e:
The original croweaters were Western Australian not South Australians... Why [we] are called croweaters or by whom the name was originated I am at a loss to know... G.F. Moore [in his book on Western Australia] wrote (29/4/1832)"dined on four crows and a quail" and (1/5/1832) "shot a crow for dinner".
The following appears in the Register, 15 March 1927, page 12f:
In 1851 my father and uncle travelled overland to the Bendigo diggings. On their arrival they were accosted with the words "crow-eaters"... A short time before they arrived a party of South Australians had arrived in a very hard-up state... While crossing the 90-mile desert they run out of tucker and were forced to shoot crows for food... On relating their experience they were dubbed crow-eaters. The term was afterwards applied to every new arrival from the central State.
Another explanation of its origin is to be found in the Advertiser,
12 April 1934, page 16h.
"Crows for the Cafe" is in the Advertiser,
24 December 1935, page 17b.
A controversy over the origin of the term "Digger" as applied to the Australian soldier is commented upon in the Advertiser,
19 October 1929, page 22d.
Also see Adelaide - Miscellany and Obituaries.
An Essay on Empire Day
(Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)
If you want a child to become a British patriot teach him to love the sight of his country's flag and to sing patriotic hymns from his earliest beginnings.
(Register, 24 May 1906 page 4.)
Editorial note: In this extract Mr Manning uses the voice of his fictional narrator of A Colonial Experience, which provides an imagined perspective from circa 1910.
History has known no other empire like the British, whose vastness appeals even to the most unimaginative. The sun, literally, never sets upon it; the Union Jack flies on all five continents and it covers more than one-fifth of the habitable globe and claims about one-fourth of the entire population of the planet. No other nation has such a large number of people who have no voice in the ruling of their destinies, for of the 400 million subjects of King Edward VII only 50 millions are self-governing and the remainder are dependent upon the goodwill of Parliaments.
Until quite recent times it was not even conscious of its own power or greatness and the development over the past century has been so rapid that its rulers have stood aghast at the burden and responsibility of maintaining it. Unlike classic examples, it is not a military empire won by lust of conquest, held by force or kept for tribute. Senates do not boast about it and the people are remarkable for indifference concerning their possessions. In a broad generalisation one main feature of the British Empire appears to be that it is an educational institution in contradistinction to the military type.
Through his government and administrators the King acts as the father of inferior races for the purpose of developing their character and promoting their happiness. The magnificent trusteeship is a noble heritage, but it involves the education of the educators. The rulers are subject to democratic control and each generation of electors require to be instructed afresh.
Such is a considered opinion of the British Empire as expressed in South Australia by a white Caucasian of British lineage in the year of our Lord, 1904. However, I have no doubt that an opinion of a very different character would be forthcoming from many of the 'inferior races' that are, at present, subjected to the whims and fancies of British dominion.
The Foundation of Empire Day
To many members of the British Empire there is something spacious, soul-stirring and inspiring in those two simple words - Empire Day. To even the stolid they convey the idea of great possessions and world-wide dominion. To the imaginative they suggest illimitable dreams of glory, of grandeur and pride of race.
Individually the British people let their thoughts dwell on the glorious achievements of the race, but the movement inaugurated by the Earl of Meath has given the opportunity for a united recognition of the deeds that won the Empire, and also for a yearly demonstration of that sympathy and brotherhood which unite the British people like hooks of steel,
Early in 1902 the Earl of Meath was instrumental in having the 24th of May, the late Queen Victoria's birthday, declared 'Empire Day' throughout the British dominions and his idea was that a holiday be given to all children attending State-aided schools, 'with the exception of a couple of hours which should be spent in exercises of a patriotic character and in pleasant instructions in matters appertaining to the Empire and its responsibilities.'
The matter was considered by Australian governments at a conference in Hobart and, in due course, the South Australian government decided that every school under its control observe 24 May as 'Empire Day', the first to be celebrated in 1905. Printed instruction to the schools stated, inter alia:
- 1. The object is to help developing a feeling of pride in the achievements of the British people and increase the groundwork of knowledge on which intelligent patriotism can be based.
2. Lessons and exercises are to be given on subjects appropriate to the occasion.
3. Hoisting and saluting the Union Jack, the recitation of national poetry and the singing of patriotic songs are suggested.
4. Older pupils are to be told of the extent of the Empire and its influence on the spread of civilisation and the characteristics of the British races that have led them to the colonisation of new lands.
5. In the lower classes simple accounts of some of the most striking incidents in British history should be given.
In an effort to convey to the reader the impact of Empire Day upon the South Australian scene I can do no better than quote from a newspaper editorial of May 1906: 'The celebration of Empire Day has now become an annual event of special interest to school children in practically all parts of the vast British dominions.
'The success achieved by the League of Empire in its efforts to strengthen the tangible bonds of union is indicative of a widespread belief that patriotic sentiments and high ideals of citizenship may be cultivated by appropriate demonstrations and systematic instruction...
' Obviously, it would be suicidal to trust solely to undisciplined popular caprice for the future security of that mighty Imperial fabric in seasons of emergency. Tennyson realised the danger which might result to the Empire from democratic institutions unless means should be adopted to prevent misuse of the power placed in the hands of the people by the extension of this franchise:
Russia bursts our Indian barrier -
Shall we fight her? Shall we yield?
Pause before you sound the trumpet!
Hear the voices from the field.
Those three hundred millions under
One Imperial sceptre now -
Shall we hold them? Shall we lose them?
Take the suffrage of the plough.
Reflections Upon Empire Days of the Past
Besides being a public holiday for 64 years as the birthday of Queen Victoria, her grandson, Prince Henry of Prussia was married on 24 May and 25 years later he kept his silver wedding at the wedding of the Kaiser's only daughter to the Duke of Brunswick Luneburg.
King William IV was on the throne when South Australia was founded, but the first Queen's birthday was kept with great enthusiasm by Governor Hindmarsh in his four-roomed hut. Some of his guests came in a waggon drawn by three horses in chain harness and driven by a waggoner with his long whalebone whip, just imported from Tasmania. Rugs and carpets spread over the bottom preserved the ladies' dresses and a high chair served as a step. This got left behind and the ladies had to spring right into the arms of the gentlemen from the back of an unusually high waggon. However, they arrived at Government Hut and enjoyed themselves.
A few years later Inspector Tolmer had his foot and mounted police out for inspection by Governor Gawler, who rode his favourite horse, Jingles. Captain O'Halloran was in charge of the volunteer cavalry at the same time. The sappers and miners fired a royal salute of 21 guns which was taken up by all the ships at Glenelg. The governor held a levee and Mrs Gawler a reception; there were no birthday balls in their time for they were strict evangelicals and disapproved of dancing.
In early colonial days the 24 th of May was kept with great rejoicing. The Aborigines were given a dole of beef, bread and blankets in honour of the day. The distribution took place on the park lands where the governor gave a speech to the starving balackfellows, who rolled up from north, south, east and west for the dole. In 1854 the Birthday dole was stopped because, previously, after it had been distributed the Aborigines indulged frequently in a fight, arising from tribal antagonism. To prevent these conflicts the largesse was given in the localities to which the tribes belonged. After a while the custom lost its charm and was discontinued.
On Queen's Birthday, 1845, Governor Grey presented John Ridley with a purse of £57 from his many friends in token of his merit for inventing a most useful implement of agriculture - the wheat stripper. In 1849 the stone laying of Saint Peters' College took place in the presence of 20 college boys with their Headmaster, Rev T.P. Wilson, second master, Rev S.R.P. Allom and many others.
In 1851 the stone laying of the German-British Hospital in Carrington Street was performed with masonic honours by provincial Grand Master Mildred. Lady Fox Young watched the ceremony from her carriage and drank success to the institution from a silver cup. In 1852, Port Augusta was discovered and named after Lady Fox Young, born Miss Augusta Marryat.
In 1855, Boyle Travers Finniss reviewed the volunteer force on the Park Lands, as the governor had not arrived from 'home'. These were Crimean War days and the volunteer fever was at its height.
In 1856 the new ballroom at Government House was used for the first time and Sir Richard MacDonnell held a Birthday dinner in it. There was no Birthday ball that year because Lady MacDonnell was in mourning, her father and brother having died within a month of each other.
In 1857 the new additions to Government House were first seen in their entirety at a Birthday ball, presided over by Sir Richard and his lady. The festivities of 24 May 1860 were saddened by the death of Charles Mann, Commissioner of Insolvency, and formerly Attorney-General and Master of the Supreme Court.
Queen's Birthday celebration of 1861 was deferred because of the mourning of the Duchess of Kent, Queen Victoria's mother. The members of the Milang Rifles received their medals on this postponed Queen's Birthday, 24 May 1862 was wet; nevertheless, Sir Dominick Daly held a review of 770 volunteers in the rain.
Lady Charlotte Bacon, the original of Byron's poem was present at the Birthday Ball in 1865. She was very stout and Inspector Tolmer, who remembered her as slim and sylphlike, could not believe that she was the same person. Lady Charlotte never minded telling a story against herself.
She was pointing out her luggage to a porter at a railway station and ended with, 'You won't forget my name, will you?' 'No, ma'am, not likely', was the answer, 'considering my name is Hogg.' Lady Charlotte was the third daughter of the 5th Earl of Oxford and her daughter, Mrs C.B. Young, resides at Walkerville. A window to the mother is in the church. Lady Charlotte's grandson is H.D. Young, MP, of Kanmantoo.
The formation of a "League of the Empire" is reported in the Register,
9 July 1904, page 8h,
"League of Empire Prizes" on
22 May 1905, page 4e.
"Empire Day and the Schools" is in the Register,
19 July 1904, page 4f.
Information on the Boys' Empire League is in the Register,
17 August 1904, page 6g.
Empire Day observances are commented on in the Express,
22 May 1905, page 4g,
24 May 1904, page 4b-d,
23 and 24 May 1905, pages 7e and 4d-e,
24 May 1905, pages 4b-6c,
25 May 1905, page 7a,
3 June 1905, page 15c,
30 May 1906, page 13 (photographs).
"Empire Day" is in the Register,
17, 24 and 25 May 1906, pages 4e, 4c and 7a,
24 and 25 May 1907, pages 4c and 9h,
23 and 26 May 1908, pages 11 and 9a.
24 May 1907, page 4c,
24 May 1912, page 6c,
23 May 1913, page 1g,
27 May 1922, page 9a; also see
24 May 1915, page 4f for "Empire Days of Long Ago - Functions at Government House" and
26 May 1919, page 6e for "Empire Days of the Past".
Information on the activities of the "League of the Empire" is in the Express,
8 February 1908, page 8f,
10 October 1908, page 8f,
27 March 1909, page 7f,
10 April 1909, page 3h,
8 May 1909, page 8f,
11 March 1911, page 3f,
27 May 1911, page 3c,
10 August 1912, page 3f,
23 November 1912, page 4g,
12 July 1913, page 4f,
11 April 1914, page 4e,
26 March 1915, page 4d.
"League of the Empire" is in the Observer,
1 June 1912, page 51a.
"Empire Days of Long Ago - Functions at Government House" is in the Register,
24 May 1915, page 4f.
"Empire Days of the Past" is in the Register,
26 May 1919, page 6e.
"The Ethics of Empire" is in the Advertiser,
19 February 1921, page 8f,
"The Ties That Bind" on
20 June 1922, page 8c.
"Empire Day in Schools" is in the Express,
26 May 1922, page 1c,
1 June 1929, page 13h.
"Empire Day" is in the Register,
27 May 1927, page 8e,
24 May 1933, page 14d,
24 May 1934, page 14d.