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Permission is not required if you are not using a 'substantial' part of the copyright material. This covers many uses of quotes or extracts. However, 'substantial' is not defined objectively as a percentage of the work, and the user needs to assess whether the portion used - however small - is important, essential or distinctive to the original work.
Search the Australian Copyright Council's Information Sheets for 'Quotes and extracts'.
The fair dealing provisions in the Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth) allow some copying of material without the need for permission from the copyright owner. These uses must be genuine and fair to the copyright owner. They are for research and study (which can be for private study as well as for registered students), criticism or review, reporting the news, giving legal advice, and for parody and satire.
Search the Australian Copyright Council's Information Sheets for 'Fair dealing' and 'Research and study'.
The fair dealing provision of the Act allows you to copy a reasonable portion of an item for research and study. This is defined in different ways.
If a work is not available in a separately published form, all of it can usually be copied under the fair dealing provisions because it is not available at an 'ordinary commercial price'. The exception is when it is available under a licensing scheme administered by the Copyright Agency Limited (CAL).